What are the three classification of joints?
Describe a fibrous joint
Band of dense irregular connective tissue connects two, or bone and tooth. This is what holds together the bones of the skull; it is also what holds teeth in place.
Describe a cartilaginous joint
like that between the ribs and the sternum, is where bones are held together by cartilage.
Describe a synovial joint
a synovial cavity is present and filled with synovial fluid. Articular cartilage covers the bones where they are in contact. The entire structure is contained by a joint capsule.
There is a rough, but imperfect, alignment between the _________ and ________ classification schemes for joints.
At extremes, easy to see alignment between classifications. For example, skull sutures are
functionally a synarthrosis and structurally a fibrous joint.
The hip joint, a diarthrosis, is also a _______ _____. The ___________ _____ is both a diarthrosis (functionally) and a ______ _____.
synovial joint; temperomandibular joint; synovial joint
There are joints and joint-like structures that resist simple classification. For example, the joint between the tooth and the mandible (or maxilla), called a ________, is functionally a little bit ________ and a little bit ___________.
gomphosis; synarthrosis; amphiarthrosis
Interosseous membrane of the upper and lower extrmities is anatomically a ______ _____.
Interosseous membrane of the upper and lower extremities is functionally an
Key features of a synovial joint.
- -two or more articulating bones
(reduces friction and provides cushion) -hyaline cartilage lining joint surface.
- Joint capsule
- -fibrous capsule (outer)
- -synovial membrane (inner)
- -synovial fluid (secreted by membrane)
- - fluid-filled sacs near joint that help reduce friction between tendons and bone.
"One" feature of synovial joints is that since they must allow for free movement, they are often __________ imperfect and subject to damage.
One unique feature of the TMJ is the presence of an _______ ____, made mostly of type I collagen, halfway between the cartilaginous surfaces. This divides the synovial cavity into two parts, a ________ compartment and _______ compartment. It is this _______ ____ which, when it becomes inflamed, causes most cases of TMJ pain in patients.
articular disc; superior; inferior; articular disc
Gliding movements are
side-to-side and do not change angle of joint.
examples: intercarpal (wrist) joint; intertarsal (ankle) joints
Since the vertebrae can bend sideways, the movement of _______ _______ is possible for the back only.
These are rotational movements that are neither flexion nor extension, neither adduction nor abduction.
Shoulder and hip joints
Angular movements change
the angle of a joint
Flexion- Extension- Hyperextension
flexion- is decreasing the angle of a joint
extension- is increasing the angle of a joint
hyperextension- is increasing the angle past anatomical position.
adduction- is moving towards the midline
abduction- is moving away from the midline
What are the six synovial joints. give an example of each.
Planar- between the navicular and second and third cuneiforms fo the tarsus (ankle).
Hinge- between trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna at elbow.
Pivot- between head of radius and radial notch of ulna
Condyloid- between radius and scaphoid and lunate bones of the carpus (wrist).
Saddle- between trapezium of carpus (wrist) and metacarpal of thumb.
Ball-and-Socket- between head of the femur and acetabulum of the hip bone.
Aging joints have three common problems. What are they?
an inflammation of a joint, particularly a synovial joint.
-Loss of synovial fluid and breakdown in articular cartilage.
-Friction between joints results in reactive bone formation which increases friction.
inflammation of the bursa which allows tendons and ligaments to slide past bones at joints.
microscopic tears in a ligament or tendon.
-compare strains = muscle microtears or muscle or muscle/tendon tears