- a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
- putting 2 ideas together
- learning that certain events occur together.
- Can be 2 stimuli or a response and its consequences.
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli.
Unconditioned response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally automatically – triggers a response
Conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response.
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Law of Effect
- Thorndike’s principle
- behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely (reward = do it again)
- behaviors folowed by unfavorable conesquences become less likely (punishment = stop doing it)
- a chamber containing a bar or a key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
- Used in operant conditioning research
- made by B. F. Skinner
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
- to encourage
- an innate reinforcer, such as one that satisfies a biological need
- eg. food, sex
- a conditioned reinforcer; an event that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
- eg. money, applause
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
- reinforcing a response only part of the time
- results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
- an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
- to stop a behavior or discourage
- a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
- for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as they have learned a cognitive map of it
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
the process of observing and imitating a behavior
- positive, constructive, helpful behavior.
- The opposite of antisocial behavior
- increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli
- Ex: food
- presented after a response, strengthens the response (add to)
- increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli
- Ex: shock, car buzz
- removed after a response, strengthens the response (take away)
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
- frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
- the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable limitation, language learning, and empathy.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an entinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been contitioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a contitioned stilulus and stimuli that do not signal an uncontitioned stimulus
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do