1. Types of Microbes
    • Virus 
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa 
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Algae
    • Helminths
  2. Bioremediation
    • use of microbes to remove toxins (oil spills)
    • Recycling sewage
  3. The first person to report seeing microbes (Cellular Structure of Plants & Fungi)  under the microscope around 1665 was an englishman named
    Robert Hooke
  4. What discovery was Robert Hooke credited with?
    He was the 1st to described "cellulae" small rooms in cork. His discovery led to the formulation of the cell theory, which states that cells are the basic organizational unit of all living things.
  5. Name the
    Father of microbiology 
    The 1st to see and describe bacteria (1676)
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
  6. What was Francisco Redi important role in microbiology
    In the late 1600s he disaproved that maggots are not spontaneously produced in rotten meat by showing that maggots develop only in meat that flies could reach to lay eggs on.
  7. Who was an important founder of medical microbiology with breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseses (Flask experiments)
    Pasteur (1859)
  8. What did Pasteurs experiments prove?
    • No living things arise by spontaneous generation
    • Microbes are everywhere- even in the air and dust
  9. What theory did Robert Kock proved in the late 1870's
    • "Germ theory of disease" 
    • Microbes (germs) cause disease and specific microbes cause specific diseases.
  10. Edward Jenner
    • Small Pox Vaccine (1796) with use of cowpox
    • 1803 it was an established medical procedure in England
  11. Name units of measurements used to measure microbes
    • Nanometer (Smallest) 
    • Micrometer 
    • Millimeter
    • 1 Meter (Largest)
  12. Name the following microscope
    Similar to a magnifying glass and has only one lense
    Simple Microscope
  13. Name the following Microscope
    Lets light pass through an object and then through two or more lenses
    Most widely used
    Can magnify up to 200x
    Compound Microscope
  14. What microscope gives a three dimensional view (2 Fields of Lights)
    Stereoscopic Microscope
  15. What microscope uses
    Magnetic field to bend beams of electrons
    Used to observe VERY small objects: viruses, DNA, parts of cells
    Electron Microscope
  16. What enlarges an image and bends the light toward your eye
    A lense
  17. Describe refraction
    the bending of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density
  18. Wet mounts are used to view?
    Living organisms
  19. What specimen preparation kills the organisms, causing them to adhere to the slide and more readily accept stains
    Heat Fixation
  20. Describe a stain/dye
    A molecule that can bind to a structure and give it color
  21. Most microbial stains are cationic (positively charged), or basic dyes, such as
    • Methylene Blue
    • Crystal Violet 
    • Safrannin
  22. Nigrosin or India ink are what type of dyes
    anionic dyes (negatively charged), or acidic dyes
  23. colored cation + colorless anion is what type of dye
    A. Acidic Dye 
    B. Basic Dye
    A. Acidic Dye 
  24. methylene blue (MB+) + methylene blue chloride (Cl-)  is what type of dye
    A. Acidic Dye 
    B. Basic Dy
    B. Basic dyes
  25. Colorless cations (positively-charged ions) and colored anions (negatively-charged ions) are what type of dyes
    A. Acidic Dye 
    B. Basic Dy
    A. Acidic Dye
  26. Bacterial cells are
    slightly negatively charged (rich in nucleic acids bearing negative charges as phosphate groups)
  27. Acidic dyes do not stain the
    Bacterial cell. they can stain the background material with a contrasting color
  28. Name the following stain, use of one dye and reveal basic cell morphology

    C. Simple stains
  29. When two or more dyes are used to distinguish various properties or organisms
    A. Differential stains
    B. Simple stains
    C. Negative stains
    A. Differential stains
  30. What type of dyes are used to color the background around cells and their parts, which resist taking up the stain
    A. Differential stains
    B. Simple stains
    C. Negative stains
    C. Negative stains
  31. acidic dyes will “stick” to the glass slide since glass has a + charge

    C. Negative stains
  32. Name the two type of cells
    • Prokaryotes
    • Eukatyotes
  33. Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion and Osmosis are 
    A. Active Transport (Requires cellular energy)
    B. Passive Transport (Does not require cellular energy)
    B. Passive Transport (Does not require cellular energy)
  34. Protein Pumps, Endocytosis and Exocytosis are examples
    A. Active Transport (Requires cellular energy)
    B. Passive Transport (Does not require cellular energy)
    A. Active Transport (Requires cellular energy)
  35. Describe Tugor pressure
    pressure exerted on the cell wall
  36. A microscope that darkens background and lightens organisms to see different contrast is known as 
    Dark field microscope
  37. What microscope gives a finer detail caused by lens and one filed of light that shift 
    Phase contrast microscope 
  38. What microscope usase dyes to light up under UV lights 
    Confocal microscope 
  39. Since cells are negatively charged the can be stained with 
    A. Anion Stains
    B. Cation Stains
    B. Cation Stains
  40. Gram staining is also known as 
    Differential Staining
  41. What determines most of the membrane's specific function 
  42. Name the two populations of membrane proteins
    • Peripheral proteins
    • Integral proteins
  43. What Proteins are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead they are loosely bounded to the surface of the protein, often connected to the other population of membrane proteins.
    Peripheral protein
  44. Which proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, often completely spanning the membrane (a transmembrane protein)
    Integral proteins
  45. Membrane functions
    • Transport
    • Intercellular jointing
    • Enzymatic activity
    • Cell to cell recognition 
    • Signal transduction
    • Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)
  46. Membrane bound organelles- ONLY found in 
    A. Eukaryotes
    B. Prokaryotes
    A. Eukaryotes
  47. include all organisms other than bacteria (Have nucleus)
    A. Eukaryotes
    B. Prokaryotes
    A. Eukaryotes
  48. include all bacteria (No Nucleus, Free DNA)
    A. Eukaryotes
    B. Prokaryotes
    B. Prokaryotes
  49. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes which one is not a similarity 
    –Cell membrane
    –Have nucleic acid (DNA)
    –Have cytoplasm
  50. Prokaryotes
    They’re everywhere!
    Collective prokaryote biomass outweighs all eukaryotes combined by at least tenfold. 
    They exist almost everywhere, including places where eukaryotes cannot.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  51. •Are smaller and simpler
    •Commonly known as bacteria
    •10-100 microns in size
    •Single-celled(unicellular) or
    •Filamentous (strings of single cells)
    A. Eukaryotes
    B. Prokaryote
    B. Prokaryote
  52. •capsule: slimy outer coating
    •cell wall: tougher middle layer
    •cell membrane: delicate inner skin
    A. Eukaryotes
    B. Prokaryote
    B. Prokaryote
  53. Name the following found in most bacteria, Slimy or gummy substance that becomes the outermost layer of the cell envelope 
  54. a thick glycocalyx is often called a 
  55. a thin glycocalyx is often called a 
    Slime Layer
  56. Glycocalyx Functions: 
    • Protection from drying out
    • Helps a cell adhere to a surface where conditions are   favorable for growth
    • Provide protection against phagocytosis (makes
    • it difficult for the phagocyte to grab hold of the bacterium)
  57. Cell walls are composed of 
  58. Bacteria are grouped according to what two cell wall types.
    • 1. Gram positive (Thick Peptidoglycan)
    • 2. Gram negative (Thin Peptidoglycan) have outer membrane
  59. Which Bacterial group has a simple, thick cell walls
    A. Gram Negative 
    B. Gram Positive
    B. Gram Positive
  60. What bacteria are typically more resistant to host immune defenses and antibiotics.
    A. Gram Positive
    B. Gram Negative
    B. Gram Negative
  61. Note that the two types of bacteria can be stained to determine which is gram-negative (COLOR ?) and gram-positive (COLOR?) using a Gram Stain. 
    A. gram-negative (pink) gram-positive (purple) 
    B. gram-negative (purple) gram-positive (pink) 
    A. gram-negative (pink) gram-positive (purple) 
  62. Name all the cell wall layers (outside in) of a gram negative cell 
    • Lipopolysaccharide layer
    • Outer membrane
    • Thin Peptidoglycan
    • Plasma membrane
  63. Name the following reagent for gram stain
    –Primary stain; positive stain
    –Stains cell wall purple
    A. Crystal Violet (purple)
    B. Iodine
    C. Ethanol
    D. Safranin (pink)
    A. Crystal Violet (purple)
  64. Name the following reagent for gram stain
    –Combines with CV to form an insoluble complex that gets trapped in thicker peptidoglycan layers
    A. Crystal Violet (purple)
    B. Iodine
    C. Ethanol
    D. Safranin (pink)
    B. Iodine
  65. Name the following reagent for gram stain
    –CV-Icomplex washed out of Gram negative organisms because it cannot be trapped by peptidoglycan layer; flows right through outer membrane

    A. Ethanol
  66. Name the following reagent for gram stain
    –Simple positive stain that provides contrasting dye for decolorized cells (Gram negative)
    –Stains all cells, but only the negative ones actually appear pink.
    A. Crystal Violet (purple)
    B. Iodine
    C. Ethanol
    D. Safranin (pink)
    D. Safranin (pink)
  67. Name prokaryote cells inner liquid filling
  68. Prokaryote DNA is in one big loop located in the 
  69. Function of prokaryote cells pilli
    Sticking to things
  70. Function of prokaryote cells ribosomes
    for building proteins
  71. Nucleoid is a mass of 
  72. Well defined, although it is not surrounded by a membrane; most of a bacterium's DNA is arranged in a single circular molecule called a 
  73. Some bacteria also contains smaller circular DNA molecules called
  74. sex pili allow one bacterial cell to adhere to another called 
  75. Name a bacteria with many flagella
  76. What antibiotics can specifically target bacterial ribosomes & not harm the host's eukaryotic ribosomes
    • tetracycline
    • erythromycin
    • streptomycin
  77. Prokaryote lifestyle
    • • unicellular: all alone
    • • colony: forms a film
    • • filamentous: forms a chain of cells
  78. Prokaryote Feeding

    • •Photosynthetic: energy from sunlight
    • •Disease-causing: feed on living things
    • •Decomposers: feed on dead things
  79. Describe Eukaryotes 
    • Evolved about 2 million years after the prokaryotes
    • Bigger and more complicated
    • Defined nucleus
    • Have membrane bound organelles
    • Have linear DNA
    • Can be multicellular
  80. Organisms with eukaryotic cells include
    • fungi,
    • algae
    • protozoa
    • plants
    • animal
  81. Organelles are membrane-bound cell parts. Mini “organs” that
    have unique structures and functions located in 
    The cytoplasm
  82. Endoplasmic reticulum
    May be smooth: builds ?
    May be rough: stores ?
    • –may be rough: stores proteins made by attached ribosomes
    • –may be smooth: builds lipids and carbohydrates
  83. Vesicles
    Describe the Structure membrane
    membrane-bound sacs that could be pinched off pieces of golgi complex, E.R., or cell membrane
  84. Vesicles
    Describe the Function:
    transport material within the cell & into & out of the cell.
  85. Lysosomes
    • –sacs filled with digestive enzymes
    • –digest worn out cell parts
    • –digest food absorbed by cell
  86. Peroxisomes
    • contain enzymes (peroxisomes) that break down
    • toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
  87. Prokaryotes 
    Contain the following Y/N
    cell membrane Y/N
    nucleus Y/N
    nucleolus Y/N
    ribosomes Y/N
    ER Y/N
    Golgi Y/N
    cell wall Y/N
    mitochondria Y/N
    • cell membrane Yes
    • nucleus No
    • nucleolus Yes
    • ribosomes Yes
    • ER No
    • Golgi No
    • cell wall Yes
    • mitochondria No
  88. Eukaryotes Contain the following structures Y/N
    cell membrane Y/N
    nucleus Y/N
    nucleolus Y/N
    ribosomes Y/N
    ER Y/N
    Golgi Y/N
    cell wall Y/N
    mitochondria Y/N
    • cell membrane Yes
    • nucleus Yes
    • nucleolus Yes
    • ribosomes Yes
    • ER Yes
    • Golgi Yes
    • cell wall Yes
    • mitochondria Yes
  89. see pg 146
Card Set
Week 1