Psych Ch 13

  1. Psychopathology
    the scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders
  2. Psychological disorder (mental disorder)
    a pattern of behavior and psychological symptoms that cause significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life, or both
  3. DSM-IV-TR
    abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision;  the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
  4. Anxiety
    an unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry
  5. Anxiety Disorders
    a category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning
  6. Features distinguishing normal anxiety from pathological anxiety:
    • 1) pathological anxiety is irrational - perceived threats are exaggerated or nonexistent and the response is out of proportion to the situation
    • 2) pathological anxiety is uncontrollable
    • 3) pathological anxiety is disruptive, interfering with relationships, job or academic performance, or everyday activities
  7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety
  8. Panic Attack
    a sudden escape of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity
  9. Panic Disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attcks
  10. Agoraphobia
    an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in a public situation and being unable to escape or get help
  11. Triple Vulnerabilities Model of Panic Disorder
    a biological predisposition toward anxiety, a low sense of control over potentially life-threatening events, and an oversensitivity to physical sensations combine to make a person vulnerable to panic
  12. Catastrophic Cognitions
    people with panic disorders are not only oversensitive to physical sensations, they tend to catastrophize the meaning of their experience
  13. Ataque de Nervios (attack of nerves)
    has many symptoms in common with panic disorder; the person also becomes hysterical. typically follows a severe stressor and elicits immediate social support from others
  14. Phobia
    a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity
  15. Specific phobia (simple phobia)
    an excessive, intense, and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is actively avoided or endured with marked anxiety
  16. Social phobia (social anxiety disorder)
    an anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations
  17. taijin kyofusho
    typically affects young Japanese males; fears that his appearance or smell, facial expression, or body language will offend, insult or embarrass other people
  18. PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma
  19. Core symptoms that characterize PTSD
    • 1) the person frequently recalls the event; recollections are intrusive
    • 2) the person avoids stimuli or situations that may trigger memories and undergoes a general numbing of emotional responsivness
    • 3) the person experiences increased physical arousal associated with anxiety
  20. OCD Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions
  21. Obsessions
    repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress
  22. Compulsions
    repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed to prevent or reduce anxiety
  23. Caudate Nucleus
    a brain area involved in regulating movements
  24. The Anxiety Disorders
    General Anxiety Disorder GAD
    • Persistent, chronic, unreasonable worry and anxiety
    • General symptoms of anxiety, including persistent physical arousal
  25. The Anxiety Disorders
    Panic Disorder
    Frequent and unexpected panic attacks, with no specific or identifiable trigger
  26. The Anxiety Disorders
    • Intense anxiety or panic attack triggered by a specific object or situation
    • Persistent avoidance of feared object or situation
  27. The Anxiety Disorders
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD
    Anxiety triggered by memories of a traumatic experience
  28. The Anxiety Disorders
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD
    • Anxiety caused by uncontrollable, persistent, recurring thoughts (obsessions) and/or
    • Anxiety caused by uncontrollable, persistent, urges to perform certain actions (compulsions)
  29. Mood Disorders (affective disorders)
    a category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
  30. Major Depression
    a mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of despondency, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning
  31. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    a mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer
  32. Dysthymic Disorder
    a mood disorder involving chronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair the ability to function
  33. Bipolar Disorder
    a mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression
  34. Manic Episode
    a sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech
  35. Flight of Ideas
    thoughts rapidly and loosely shift from topic to topic
  36. Cyclothymic Disorder
    a mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to quality as bipolar disorder
  37. Rapid Cycling
    people with bipolar disorder who experience four or more manic or depressive episodes every year
  38. Lithium
    a medication that helps control bipolar disorder by regulating the availability of glutamate
  39. Glutamate
    a neurotransmitter which acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in many brain areas
  40. The Mood Disorders
    Major Depression
    • Loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities
    • Despondent mood, feelings of emptiness, worthlessness, or excessive guilt
    • Preoccupation with death or suicidal thoughts
    • Difficulty sleeping or excessive sleeping
    • Diminished ability to think, concentrate, or make decisions
    • Diminished appetite and significant weight loss
  41. The Mood Disorders
    Dysthymic Disorder
    Chronic, low-grade depressed feeelings that are not severe enough to qualify as major depression
  42. The Mood Disorders
    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    Recurring episodes of depression that follow a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the fall and winter months and subsiding in the spring and summer months
  43. The Mood Disorders
    Bipolar Disorder
    • One or more manic episodes characterized by euphoria, high energy, grandiose ideas, flight of ideas, inappropriate self-confidence, and decreased need for sleep
    • Usually one or more episodes of major depression
    • In some cases, may rapidly alternate between symptoms of mania and major depression
  44. The Mood Disorders
    Cyclothymic Disorder
    Moderate, recurring mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as major depression or bipolar disorder
  45. Eating Disorder
    a category of mental disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior
  46. Anorexia Nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss, an irrational fear of gaining weight, and distorted body self-perception
  47. Lanugo
    a soft, fine body hair caused by extreme malnutrition
  48. Bulimia Nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, or other inappropriate methods to purge the excessive food and prevent weight gain
  49. Personality
    the consistent and enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize you as an individual
  50. Personality Traits
    relatively stable predispositions to behave or react in certain ways
  51. Personality Disorder
    inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual's culture
  52. Paranoid Personality Disorder
    a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis
  53. Antisocial personality disorder (psychopath or sociopath)
    a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others
  54. Borderline Personality Disorder
    a personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsivity
  55. Biosocial Developmental Theory of Borderline Personality Disorder
    according to this view, borderline personality disorder is the outcome of a unique combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors
  56. Dissociative Experience
    a break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided
  57. Dissociative Disorders
    a category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory and personal identity impair the ability to function
  58. Dissociative Amnesia
    a dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information
  59. Dissociative Fugue
    a dissociative disorder involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and indentity confusion
  60. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
    a dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of two or more distinct identities, or personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder
  61. Alters (alter egos)
    alternate personalities
  62. Schizophrenia
    a psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes
  63. Positive Symptoms
    in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect excesses or distortions of normal functioning, including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thoughts and behavior
  64. Negative Symptoms
    in schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition
  65. Delusion
    a falsely held belief that persists despite compelling contradictory evidence
  66. Delusions of reference
    in schizophrenia, the person's false conviction that other people's behavior and ordinary events are somehow personally related to them
  67. Delusions of grandeur
    in schizophrenia, the belief that the person is extremely powerful, important, or wealthy
  68. Delusions of persecution
    in schizophrenia, the basic theme is that others are plotting against or trying to harm the person or someone close to that person
  69. Delusions of being controlled
    in schizophrenia, the belief that outside forces are trying to exert control on the individual
  70. Hallucination
    a false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it
  71. Flat Affect
    the person responds in an emotionally flat way, showing a dramatic reduction in emotional responsiveness and facial expressions
  72. Alogia (poverty of speech)
    greatly reduced production of speech, verbal responses are limited to brief, empty comments
  73. Avolition
    the inability to initiate or persist in even simple forms of goal-directed behaviors
  74. Dopamine hypothesis
    the view that schizophrenia is related to, and may be caused by, excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
Card Set
Psych Ch 13
Psych Ch 13 Key Terms