1. How do cells divide??
    • Cell Replication 
    • Controling the Eukaryotic cycyle
    • Failure to control the Eukaryotic Cell cycle: cancer
  2. Where do cells come from?
    every cell from a cell

    cell division = cell reproduction and asecual reproduction
  3. Asexual Reproduction
    • Offspring genetically identical to original cell or organism (except mutations)
    • All genes inherited from one parent
  4. Binary Fission is??
    Bacterial Cell Division
  5. Asexual Resproduction ='s
    Binary Fission (prokaryotes)
  6. Where does Asecual Reproduction occur?
    occurs in prokaryotic cells
  7. in Asexual Reproduction there are _____ identical cells arise from one cell (except mutations)
  8. What is the process of Asexual Reproduction??
    • 1. Single circular chromosome duplicates (copies identical except for mutations) 
    • 2. Copies begin to separate from each other
    • 3. Cell elongates, and chromosomal copies separate further
    • 4. Plasma membrane grows inward at midpoint to divide into two cells
  9. Asexual Resproduction can also equal 
    Mitosis (eukaryotes)
  10. Cell division produces new cells in order to ??
    • Produce new unicellular cells
    • Health wounds and replace damaged cells/tissues
    • Grow and develop
  11. What are the three key events in a cell cycle??
    • Cell growth and chromosome replication
    • Chromosomes segregate
    • cell division
  12. M phase ='s
    Mitosis + Cytokinesis
  13. Mitosis
    nuclear division
  14. Cytokinesis 
    Cytoplasmic division
  15. What makes up Interphase??
    • G1 phase
    • Sphase
    • G2 phase
  16. What makes up everything inside M phase
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  17. Levels of DNA Packaging
    • 2-nm double stranded DNA molecule
    • 11 nm nucleosomes
    • 30 nm chromatin fiber
    • Organization around a central scaffold
  18. Diploid ='s
  19. Haploid ='s 
  20. Homologous pair of chromosomes ='s
    Maternal chromosome and Paternal chromosome
  21. S phase is what?
    Chromosome duplication of sister chromatids ---> chromosome distribution to daughter cells
  22. G1='s 
  23. S ='s
  24. G2='s
  25. G2 is Prior to what??
    Prior to Mitosis
  26. The mitotic Spindle ='s 
    Centrosome duplication
  27. Prophase 
    • Mitotic spindle begining to form
    • Condensed chromsomes
    • Cytoskeleton is dissembled: spindle begins to form
    • Golgi and ER are dispersed
    • Nuclear envelop breaks down
  28. What happens in Prometaphase
    Chromosomes attach to microtubles at the kinetochores

    Each chromosome is oriented such that the kinetochores of sister chromatids are attached to microtubules

    Chromosomes move to equator of the cell
  29. What happens in metaphase
    • Alignment of chromosomes along metaphase plate
    •     -not an actual structure
    •     -future axis of cell division
  30. What happens in Anaphase
    Proteins holding centromeres of sister chromatids are degraded, freeing individual chromosomes

    Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles (anaphase A)

    Spindle poles move apart (anaphase B)
  31. in anaphase chromosomes move towards centrosoms by the ...??
    dissolving "glue" by proteolysis of one subunit of cohesin commplex 
  32. What happens in Telophase
    Chromosomes are clustered at opposite poles and decondense

    Nuclear envelopes re-form around chromosomes

    Golgi complex and ER re-form
  33. Cytokinesis happens in ...??
    Plant cells
  34. what are the basic problems in Cell cycle control??
    DNA must be replicated once per cell cycle

    Sister chromatids must segregate accurately

    Cell division must be coupled to growth and conditions

    Events must ve coordinated
  35. What controls cell cycle progression?
    Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  36. in G2/M checkpoint Progression what is the relationship??
    there is a relationship between Cyclin B levels and CDK1 activity

    cyclin B + CDK1 =MPF
  37. For the cell cycle Cyclin B is _____ But ____ ______?
    Cyclin B is necessary, but NOT sufficient
  38. In the cell cycle inhibitory _________ msut be _______ before MFP is ______
    Phosphate must be removed (phosphate) before MFP is active (active cdk1)
  39. Different CDK/Cyclin Complexes are Important at _____???
    at Different Points in the Cell Cycle
  40. The Spindle Checkpoint is what complex??
    Anaphase promoting complex (APC)
  41. What do Internal Signals that Regulate Cell Cycle Progression do ??
    DNA Damage (G2/M checkpoint)

    Dincomplete replication (G2/M checkpoint)

    Chromosomes are misaligned (Mitotic/spindle checkpoint)
  42. What are the External signals that regulate cell cycle progression 
    Growth Factors (G1/G0 checkpoint)

    Cell Density 

  43. in the Mitotic cell cycle G1.G2 ='s
    Gap or Growth phases
  44. in the Mitotic cell cycle S ='s 
    Synthesis-when DNA is replicated
  45. in the Mitotic cell cycle interphase ='s
  46. Cancer is .....
    breaching the controls that maintain normal homeostasis
  47. What does cancer do??
    • Does not require growth factors
    • No density-dependent inhibition
    • Anchorage independent
    • Ignore DNA damage (G2/M checkpoint)
    • Enter M (pass G2/M checkpoint) w/ incompletely replicated DNA
    • Bypass M/spingle checkpoint w/ misaligned chromosomes
  48. Development of cancer is a .....???
    a Multi-Step Process
  49. Tumor
    a tumor grows froma single cancer cell
  50. Cancer cells
    invade neighboring tissue

    spread to other parts of the body

    may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body
  51. What consists of Proto-Oncogenes??
    • Growth factor receptor
    • Ras Protein
    • Src Kinase
  52. Growth factor receptor in proto-oncogenes is 
    more per cell in many breast cancers
  53. what does the Ras protein do in proto-oncogenes
    Activated by mutations in 20-30% of all cancer
  54. What does Src kinase do in proto-oncogenes
    activated by mutations in 2-5% of all cancers
  55. Tumor-suppressor Genes consist of what??
    Rb protein

    p53 protein
  56. Rb protein does what in the tumor suppressor genes?
    mutated in 40% of all cancers
  57. p53 does what in tumor-suppressor genes?
    mutated in 50% of all cancers
  58. Activated Proto-oncogenes Promote??
  59. Proto-oncogenes normally promote??
    cell growth in response to proper signals
  60. mutate proto-oncogenes=
  61. Oncogenes are ??
    overactive: always promote cell-growth (gasoline tank always full)
  62. What role do oncogenes play?
    Proto-oncogenes normally promote cell division under proper conditions

    oncogenes promote cell division all the time (constituively)
  63. What is an example of proto-oncogene??
    normal Ras
  64. what is an example of an oncogene??
    mutated Ras
  65. Inactivated Tumor Suppressor Genes lead to ____?
  66. What do Tumor Suppressor genes normally do??
    nomally inhibit cell growth 
  67. What happens when mutation inactivate TS genes?
    It prevents their ability to inhibit cell growth
  68. What does Radiation do??
    Damages DNA

    some cancer cells are more susceptible to death from DNA damage-lost the ability to properly repair
  69. Chemotherapy
    drugs toxic to dividing cells

    side effects due to damage to normally dividing cells
  70. Directed therapies
    Specific to the relevant mutation 

    • -Few exist
    • -no on cure for all cancer
    • -not enough yet know about cell biology/cancer cell biology
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