What are the 4 steps in the Social Ladder?
- 1. Social Interactions
- 2. Social Structure
- 3. Social Institutions
- 4. Social Change
What is Sociological Imagination?
It helps the individual in society connect their own personal experiences to what is happening in society
What is the difference between a Trouble and an Issue?
A Trouble affects the individual.
An Issue affects the society as a whole.
What is Debunking and who coined it?
Debunking means to denounce inconvenient facts or social myths as false and was coined by Peter Burger
What is Manifest Function?
A deliberate intent
What is Latent Function?
An unknown consequence
What is Macroanalysis?
An analysis of the complete picture; Big
What is Microanalysis?
An analysis of a smaller detailed picture; Small
What are the 3 Theories of Sociology?
- 1. Functionalism
- 2. Conflict
- 3. Symbolic Interaction
We all follow the same path.
The more people relate with one another, the more smoothly society works
Social Solidarity - Emile Durkheim
What is the Protestant Work Ethic?
The harder you work, the more god loves you
Explain the Conflict Theory
The use of power to create inequality in society
Power is the ability to control or coerce the weak to uphold social stability
The competition for social resources creates conflicts
Explain Symbolic Interaction
Symbolic meanings to objects, events, ideas, etc
e.g. Monetary Bills are important in society
What are the 6 Steps of Empiracal Research?
- 1. Ask a research question
- 2. Review Literature
- 3. Plan a research design
- 4. Collect data
- 5. Analyze data
- 6. Report data
A way of life
A complex system of social behavior and human interaction that defines the way of life for a group of people (society).
Customs, traditions, ideas, -> Art, Music, etc
One feels that cultural ideals are superior to another group
What is Material Culture?
A tangible aspect of culture or a cultural object
e.g. Middle Eastern culture's Veil
What is Non-Material Culture?
An abstract aspect of culture or ideas and concepts within a culture
e.g. Middle Eastern culture's Purdah, or act of sucluding women to prove lineage by means of Veil
What are the 5 Characteristics of Culture?
- 1. Shared
- 2. Learned
- 3. Symbolic
- 4. Varies over time and place
- 5. Taken for granted
What are the 4 Elements of Culture?
- 1. Language - Sapir/Wharf - Generates inequality
- 2. Norms - Standards for desirable behavior in society
- 3. Values - Right and wrong
- 4. Beliefs - Assume to be true, faith. Generates values
Explain Grahms-Sumner's 3 Standards of Norms
- 1. Folkway - Etiquette, traditions, customs
- 2. Moré - Strict
- 3. Taboo - Unspeakable
To disrupt norms in society to see how people react
Define Dominant Culture
Conflict reduces political resistance, economic interests
A respected diverse culture within another, coexisting peacefully
A Culture within a society that rejects the dominant culture's way of life, hostile coexistance
Define Pop Culture
Everday life and traditions produced by mass media; fad
The opposite is an elite culture
Define Global Culture
A uniform transition to a single language; English
What are the 4 Soruces of Cultural Change?
- 1. Innovation / Technology - Culture Lag; Opposite = Culture Shock - threatened by change
- 2. Imposed - A forced culture
- 3. Diffusion - Influenced / assimilated cultures (e.g. pizza seems American but its Italian)
- 4. Changes in society (e.g. Civil Rights)
What are the 6 Agents of Socialization?
- 1. Family
- 2. Schools
- 3. Peers - Equal footing with; acceptance / approve
- 4. Sports - Important to fathers; pushed on boys
- 5. Media
- 6. Religion
Explain Sexist Ideology and the 3 Factors
Society looks down on you if you're a young boy and don't play sports
- 1. Set of beliefs
- 2. Serves the status quo
- 3. Distorts reality
Explain "Risk Reduction"
Sports reduces the risk of being labeled
Men can show a connection with each other without the risk of being sanctioned with sports
Explain the Jean Piaget Theory
Girls change the game to make fair
Boys adhere to the rule for competition
Explain "Conditional" Selfworth
You're not going to win all the time; got to face disappointment
You feel incredible defeat if convinced of a win.
Explain the Social Learning Theory / 3 Sensorimotor Stages
The life course
- 1. Pre-operationable stage - Language; Pre-conventional - Childhood
- 2. Concrete operational stage - Logic; Conventional - Adolescence
- 3. Formal operational stage - Abstract; Post-conventional - Adulthood
Define Rite of Passage
Marks transitions in life course; marked by ceremony
Explain Mead/Cooley's 3 Factors of the Looking Glass Self Theory
- 1. We note the reactions of others towards us
- 2. Our understanding of judgement is based on perception
- 3. Your behavior is affected
A radical shift in social expectation
- Military - Brainwashing
- Stockholm Syndrome - Identifying with the kidnapper