Biomedical Core

  1. Ribs 1-7 are
    • True ribs.
    • -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T1-T7)

    -Costal cartilage (a type of hyaline cartilage) connects these to sternum.
  2. Ribs 8-10
    • False ribe.
    • -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T8-T10)

    -connects to sternum through rib 7's cartilage
  3. Ribs 11 & 12
    • Floating ribs.
    • -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T11-T12)

    -does not connect to sternum
  4. Appendicular skeleton includes bones of
    upper and lower extremities.

    • Analogies between:
    • humerus and femur
    • radius/ulna and tibia/fibula
    • carpals and tarsals
    • metacarpals and metatarsals
    • phalanges and phalanges
  5. Upper Extremity
    • Clavicle
    • Scapula
    • Humerus
    • Radius (lateral)
    • Ulna (medial)
    • Carpals (8)
    • Metacarpals (5)
    • Phalanges (14)
    • -3 rows for fingers
    • -2 in thumb
  6. The shoulder (pectoral) girdle is supported by the clavicle, or collarbone; and the scapula, or shoulder blade. Together, these form the socket for the head of the humerus, which is called the
    glenoid fossa
  7. The longest and thickest bone of the upper extremity is the
    humerus; the head of the humerus fits into the socket of the glenoid fossa to form the shoulder joint. Anatomist call the structures between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint the "arm" and between the elbow and the wrist the "forearm".
  8. The bones of the forearm, the radius and ulna, articulate with the
    distal humerus at the elbow joint.
  9. Lower Extremtiy:

    Pelvis connects axial skeleton to lower extremity.

    Made up of three pairs; ilium (flank); ischium (hip); pubis (groin)

    Ilium forms joint with sacrum (sacroiliac joint)

    Two halves joined at pubic symphysis.

    Socket for head of femur (acetabulum)
  10. Lower Extremity
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Tarsals (7)
    • Metatarsals (5)
    • Phalanges (14)
    • -only 2 phalanges in great toe
  11. Because bones are thickened under stress, bone shapes
    reflect points of attachment by tendons or ligaments.

    Also need holes for nerves and blood vessels to pass through.
  12. Common names of bones shapes
    • Condyle: knuckle
    • Epicondyle: on top of a condyle
    • Foramen: window
    • Fossa: ditch
    • Process: projection (xiphoid process)
    • Spine: like process but pointy
    • Trochanter: runner, ball of hip joint
    • Trochlea: pulley
    • Tubercle: little potato
    • Tuberosity: potato-like bump
  13. In adult skull, all bones joined
    tightly so only boveable joint is between temporal and mandibular bones.
  14. In fetal and newborn life, broad
    bands of fibrocartilage (fontanels) connect skull bones.
  15. Fontanels
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • anterolateral
    • posterolateral
  16. The easiest fontanel to find on a newborn is the anterior fontanel, the place where the
    two (left and right) frontal bones join the two (left and right) parietal bones.
  17. Anterolateral fontanel is where the
    temporal, parietal and frontal bones are joined.
  18. The posterior fontanel is
    along the midline between the parietal and occiptial bones.
  19. The posterolateral fontanel is where the
    parietal, occipital and temporal bones meet.
  20. The only moveable joint in the adult skull is the
    temporomandibular joint
  21. In the first few months of life, the fontanels fuse and become bone, but the remnants of these joints remain as
    sutures of the skull, zigzag lines that hold the bones of the skull together tightly.
  22. In females, the angle between the ischial tuberosities, called the
    pubic arch, is generally greater than 90 degrees, while in males the angle is less than 90 degrees
  23. Pelvic brim (pelvic inlet), the oval region defined by the medial aspect of the ilia, is
    larger in females as well.
  24. Greater sciatic notch
    larger in females
  25. Synarthrotic joints are
    not capable of functional movement. Perhaps the joints in your skull can move, but you really would prefer it if they didn't
  26. Amphiarthrotic joints are
    slightly moveable. 

    Sternocostal (sternum-ribs); pubic symphysis
  27. Diarthrotic joints are
    fully moveable.  The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints are examples of these.
  28. Arthro- =
    Syn- =
    Amphi- =
    • joint
    • together
    • two-way
    • two
Card Set
Biomedical Core
Objective 16-22