Ch23 notes exam5

  1. How do lymphatic vessels differ from vascular capillaries?
    • larger diameter
    • thinner walls
    • anchoring filaments
    • flat, irregular
    • greater permeability
  2. Why are the walls of lymphatic capillaries thinner thann the walls of vascular capillaries?
    because it is not continuous with the basal lamina
  3. What is the function of the anchoring filaments in lymphatic capillaries?
    keeps passageways open when ISF pressure goes up
  4. Why do lymphatic capillaries have a greater permeability?
    because of overlapping endothelial cells
  5. Where are lymphatic capillaries found?
    • in connective tissue deep to skin
    • in mucous membranes
    • in digestive tract
    • ** not in CNS
  6. What are lacteals? their function?
    • lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine
    • they transport lipids absorbed by the digestive tract
  7. How do lymphatics differ from veins?
    • thinner walls
    • wider lumens
    • no clear layers
  8. What is lymphodema and how is it caused?
    • swollen area because lymph drainage is disturbed in a compressed or damaged vessel
    • ISF pressure goes up causes edema
  9. Where do lymphatic ducts take lymph?
    to the venous system
  10. Where does the thoracic duct get lymph from?
    entire lower body under diaphragm and L side above the diaphragm
  11. What is the origin of the thoracic duct?
    cisterna chyli
  12. Where does the lymphatic duct get lymph from?
    R upper body
  13. What do lymphocytes respond to?
    • invading organisms (bacteria and viruses)
    • abnormal body cells (cancer cells)
    • foreign proteins (toxins)
  14. What do T cells attack? how?
    • foreign cells or infected body viruses
    • through direct contact
  15. What do helper T cells and suppressor cells do?
    assist in regulation and coordination of immune response
  16. How are memory T cells produced?
    produced by division of activated T cells
  17. What is the function of memory T cells?
    on reserve to get activated only when same antigen appears again
  18. What do B cells differentiate into? When?
    • into plasmocytes
    • when they exposed to antigens
  19. What is the function of plasmocytes?
    produce and secrete antibodies
  20. What is an antigen?
    part or product of a pathogen
  21. What is the goal of immune response?
    destruction or inactivation of pathogens, abnormal cells, and foreign molecules
  22. What are the methods that the immune response uses to fulfill its goal?
    • cell- mediated immunity
    • antibody- mediated immunity
  23. What is cell-mediated immunity?
    direct contact (T cells)
  24. What is antibody-mediated immunity?
    attack my circulating antibodies that are released by plasmocytes with B cells
  25. What is lymphopoiesis? Where does it occur?
    •  lymphocyte production
    • in the bone marrow and thymus
  26. What is the function of pluripotential lymphoid stem cells?
    produce lymphatic stem cells that either stay in the bone marrow or migrate to the thymus
  27. What is the function of the lymphatic stem cells that stay in the bone marrow?
    • divide to produce NK cells and B cells, which go to peripheral tissues
    • NK cells circulate throughout
    • B cells go to lymph node, spleen, or lymphatic organs
  28. What is the function of the lymphatic stem cells that go to the thymus?
    repeatedly divide and produce daughter cells that mature into T cells, which go to spleen, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs
  29. What is so special about the success of immunity?
    the ability to increase the number of specific types of lymphocytes
  30. What is the germinal center?
    pale central zone of of lymphoid nodule with activated lymphocytes
  31. What are tonsils?
    large nodules in wall of pharynx
  32. What is the function of tonsils?
    remove pathogens that enter pharynx in food and air
  33. What are the 5 tonsils?
    • 1pharyngeal tonsil
    • 2palatine tonsil
    • 2lingual tonsil
  34. What are peyer's patches? Where are they found?
    • aggregated lymphoid nodules
    • in mucosal lining of small intestines
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Ch23 notes exam5
ch23 notes exam 5