bio 1401

  1. Four stages
    • 1. ingestion: eating
    • 2. digestion: chem breakdown
    • -carbohydrates-----> simple sugars
    • -Fats--------> glycerol and fatty acids
    • -protein---------> amino acids
    • -nucleic acids--------> nucleotides

    • 3. absorption:cells absorb monomers
    • 4. elimination: undigested waste leaves
  2. A. ingestion
    • tongue
    • salivary glands= salivary amylase, pharynx, esophagus, bolus= food ball
  3. peristalsis
    involuntary waves that bring food to stomach
  4. B. Digestion- stomach
    food storage organ w/ gastric glands= gastric juice
  5. human digestive tract
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  6. stomach anatomy
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  7. section of stomach wall
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  8. small intestine structure
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  9. pancreas 2 types of hormones and function
    Insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to high blood sugar, although a low level of insulin is always secreted by the pancreas.  After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises.  Likewise, as blood glucose falls, insulin secretion by the pancreatic islet beta cells decreases.In response to insulin, cells (muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells) take glucose in from the blood, which ultimately lowers the high blood glucose levels back to the normal range

    Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas when blood glucose is low.   Blood glucose is low between meals and during exercise.  When blood glucose is high, no glucagon is secreted from the alpha cells.  Glucagon has the greatest effect on the liver although it affects many different cells in the body.  Glucagon's function is to cause the liver to release stored glucose from its cells into the blood.  Glucagon also the production of glucose by the liver out of building blocks obtained from other nutrients found in the body, for example, protein [4].

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  10. where the bile is storeged and created
    • liver produces bile
    • the gall bladder stores the bile
  11. D. elimination
    what the cecum?
    cecum or caecum is a pouch, usually peritoneal, that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
  12. where it occurs, elimination?
    large intestine, rectum and anus
  13. Digestive enzymes... protein digestion
    pepsin and trypsin are two types of protease
  14. function of digestive enzyme amylase:
    carbohydrate digestion
  15. digestive enzyme: lipase function
    fat digestion
  16. where does absorption of glycerol and insulin occur?
    small intestine
  17. whats HDL and LDL?
    • LDL (Bad) CholesterolWhen too much LDL (bad) cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up in the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. (glycerol from liver to body)
    • HDL (Good) CholesterolAbout one-fourth to one-third of blood cholesterol is carried by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol, because high levels of HDL seem to protect against heart attack. (takes glycerol to liver breakdown)
Card Set
bio 1401
ex 11