1. What are the two parts of respiration
    • Cell respiration
    • Gas exchange
  2. What does cell repiration invlove (3)
    • Breakdown of foos (glucose and lipid) to release energy
    • Make ATP
    • Rest of the energy is released as heat
  3. What is gas exchange
    Involoves uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide
  4. Why do large mammals need a lot of oxygen (3)
    • Relatively large organisms with a large volume of living cells
    • Maintain a high body temperature
    • High metabolic rates
  5. What makes an effective gas-exchange surface (5)
    • Large surface area to volume ration
    • Thin
    • Permeable to gases
    • Ventilation to maintain a conc. gradient
    • Movement of internal medium (blood) to maintain a conc. gradient
  6. What is the trachea
    • Flexible airway that is supported by rings of cartilage to prevent it from collapsing as the air pressure falls.
    • Made up of cilated epithelim and goblet cells which produces mucus
  7. What is the bronchi and bronchioles
    • Bronchi are two divisions of the trachea each leading to a lung. The bronchioloes are more branches off of the bronchi.
    • They both produce mucus to trap dirt
  8. What is the alveoli
    • Minute air sacs that contain collagen and elastic fibres and are lined with epithelium.
    • The elastic fibres allow them to stretch when filled with air and spring back when breathing out
    • Alveolar membrance is the gas-exchange surface
  9. List the order in which oxygen goes from nose to exchange surface
    • Nose
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli
  10. What is surfactant
    Detergent like substance which reduces its surface tension so prevents the alveolar walls bing pulled together and collapsing
  11. What is partial pressure
    The pressure that a gas exerts when in a mixture of gases
  12. What is residual volume
    The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximum expiration
  13. What is dead space
    The space in the trachea, bronchi, and other air passages which contains air that does not reach the alveoli during respiration
  14. Why is this process not that efficient
    • Some blood entering the lings doesn't go into the alveolar capillaries and therefore stays deoxygenated
    • Some alveoli and under-ventialted
  15. Describe inspiration
    • External IMs contract, internal IMs relax
    • Ribs pulled upwards and outwards, increasing the volume of the thorax
    • Diaphragm contracts causing it to flatten, increasing volume, which drops pressure
    • Air moves from high pressure to low so moves into the lungs
  16. Descirbe Expiration
    • Internal IMs contract so external IMs relax
    • Ribs move down and in, decreasing volume
    • Diaphragm relaxs returning to dome shape which decreases volume and increase pressure
    • Pulmonary pressure is greater than atmosphere so air moves out
  17. What are the short term effects of exercise on breathing
    • Increased breathing rate
    • Increased depth of breath
    • Increased oxygen consumption
    • Increase in carbon dioxide in expired air
  18. What are the long term effects of exercise on breathing
    • An expansion of alveoli
    • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles become larger
    • Number of capillaries in the lungs increases
  19. What is tidal volume
    Voulme breathed in and out in one cycle
  20. What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation
    Pulmonary ventilation (cm3min-1) = tidal volume (cm3) x breathing rate (min-1)
  21. Why is gas exchange necessary
    To replace old air and to allow cell respiration to take place
  22. What is Fick's law
    • Surface area x concentration difference
    •         Length of diffusion path
  23. What type of epithelium makes up the alveoli
  24. What role do macrophages have in the alveoli
    Destroy bacteria and viruses
  25. What role do pleural membrance have
    Cushions movement of the lungs
Card Set
Pack 4 - lungs