Ch20 notes exam 5

  1. What are the functions of blood?
    • distribute nutrients, O2, and hormones to each body cell
    • take metabolic waste to kidneys for excretion
    • transport cells that defend peripheral tissues against infection
  2. What are platelets?
    small membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm
  3. What is whole blood?
    • a mixture of plasma and formed elements
    • it is sticky, cohesive, and resistant to flow
  4. What are the plasma components of whole blood?
    • water
    • electrolytes
    • nutrients
    • organic waste
    • proteins
  5. What are the formed elements?
    • RBCs
    • WBCs
    • platelets
  6. What is the function of immunoglobins?
    attack foreign proteins and pathogens
  7. What is the function of transport globulins?
    bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that are either insoluble or that might be filtered out by the kidneys
  8. What is fibrinogen? What is its backup?
    • the basic framework for blood clots
    • serum
  9. What is the hematocrit value?
    it indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by whole elements
  10. What is the importance of a big surface area on RBCs/
    it permits rapid diffusion between RBC cytoplasm and surrounding plasma
  11. What are rouleaux?
    stacks of RBCs, they dissociate repeatedly without affecting the cells involved
  12. What are the characterisitics of RBCs?
    • biconcave disc
    • no nucleus
    • no mitochondria
    • no ribosomes
    • red because of hemoglobin
  13. What is the main function of RBCs?
    • transport oxygen from lungs to tissues
    • transport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
  14. What are the characterisitcs of neutrophils?
    • round cell
    • nucleus looks like beads
    • cytoplasm ahs big pale inclusions
  15. What are the functions of neutrophils?
    phagocytic to engulf pathogens in tissue
  16. What is the life expectancy of neutrophils?
    minutes to days depending on activity
  17. What are the characteristics eosinophils?
    • round cell
    • 2 lobed nucleus
    • large granules in cytoplasm
  18. What are the functions of eosinophils?
    • attack anything labled with antibodies
    • fight v parasitic infection
    • suppress inflammation
  19. What are the characterisitics of basophils?
    • round cell
    • nucleus cannot be seen because of dense granules in cytoplam
  20. What is the function of basophils?
    enter damage tissue and release histamine
  21. What are the characterisitics of monocytes?
    • large kidney bean shaped nucleus
    • abundant pale cytoplasm
  22. What are the functions of monocytes?
    • enter tissues to become free macrophages
    • engulf pathogens or debris
  23. What are the characterisitics of lymphocytes?
    • a little bigger than RBCs
    • round nucleus
    • little cytoplasm
  24. What are the functions of lymphocytes?
    • provides defense v. specific pathogens or toxins
    • T cells and B cells
  25. How do T cells attack pathogens? B cells?
    • directly
    • form plasmocytes that secrete antibodies 
  26. What are the characteristics of platelets?
    • cytoplasmic fragments
    • with enzymes and proenzymes
    • no nucleus
  27. What is the function of platelets?
    • hemeostasis
    • clump together and stick to vessel wall
    • activate intrinsic pathway of coagulation phase
  28. What is the function of hemoglobin?
    responsible for cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  29. What is the color difference between oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated?
    • oxygenated = bright red (arterial)
    • deoxygenated = deep red (venous)
  30. What are granulocytes?
    leukocytes with large granular inclusions in their cytoplasm
  31. What are agranulocytes?
    lekocytes without visible granules
  32. What is leukopenia?
    inadequate number of leokocytes
  33. What is leokocytosis?
    excessive numbers of leokuocytes
  34. What is a differential count?
    the number of each type of cell in a sample of 100 WBCs
  35. What is diapedesis?
    leukocytes can cross the endothelial lining of a capillary by squeezing between endothelial cells when there is an injury
  36. What is chemotaxis?
    WBCs are attracted to chemical signs of inflammation or infection in interstitial fluids 
  37. What are the granular leukocytes that are phagocytic cells?
    neutrophils and eosinophils
  38. Which granular leukocyte is very mobile and the 1st on site of injury?
  39. What happens after a neutrophil engulfs debris or pathogens?
    it dies and releases chemicals that attract other neutrophils to the site
  40. Which granular leukocyte grows in number during allergic reactions or parasitic infection? what does it do?
    • eosinophil
    • it releases enzymes that reduce inflammation and control its spread
  41. How do basophils migrate to injuries?
    they cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate within damaged tissues where they discharge their granules
  42. Which agranular leokocyte is the largest WBC?
  43. What are monocytes called when they are outside of the bloodstream?
    free macrophages
  44. What are monocytes called when they are in the connective tissue?
    fixed macrophages
  45. Which agranular leukocytes arrives on injury site just after neutrophils?
  46. What is special about active macrophages (monocytes)?
    they release chemicals to lure in fibroblasts.
  47. Which agranular leukocyte has very little cytoplasm and a big nucleus?
  48. What are the primary vells of the lymphoid system?
  49. What is specific immunity?
    the ability of the body to start an attack v pathogens on an individual basis
  50. Wich leukocyte is responsible for specific immunity?
  51. What are the 3 ways that lymphocytes respond in specific immunity?
    • T cells
    • B cells
    • NK cells
  52. What are megakaryocytes?
    • big cells with big nuclei
    • nucleus is dense and lobed or ring shaped
  53. What does the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes contain?
    • glogo apparatus
    • ribosomes
    • mitochondria
  54. What do megakaryocytes manufacture?
    • proteins
    • enzymes
    • membranes
  55. What are the membranes enclosed packets that fall off of a shedding megakaryocyte?
  56. What is thrombocytopenia?
    low platelet count or escessive platelet destruction
  57. What is thrombocytosis?
    • excessive platelet production
    • from response to infection, inflammation, or cancer
  58. What is the process that prevents loss of blood through the walls of damaged vessels?
  59. What are the funtions of platelets?
    • transport clotting chemicals
    • patch up walls of damaged vessels
    • contraction on clot  to pull the edges together
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Ch20 notes exam 5
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