Described as the "prototype of the modern world." Period in which people began to adopt a rational and statistical approach to reality and rediscover the worth and creativity of the individual.
- In Italy from (1375-1527)
- The study of Latin & Greek classics as well as the ancient church with the hope of reviving ancient norms & values.
- First humanists were orators and poets.
- (1451-1506) He sailed under the flag of Spain.
- Discovered the Americas after teh Spanish turned west trying to find a shorter route to the east Indies by sailing across the Atlantic.
Isabella of Castille & Ferdinand of Aragon
- Married in 1469
- Dynastically united kingdoms but still constitutionally seperated.
- Protests came from Portugal and France, both saw the formidable European power the marriage would create.
- Exercised almost total control over the Spanish church.
- Sponsored Columbus
- He was a melancholy genius. He excelled in a variety of arts and crafts.
- His eighteen foot sculpture of David is a perfect example of Renaissance devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion, all serving the glorification of the human form.
- Painted fresco in the vatican
- He was a man of great kindness and a painter of great sensitivity.
- Most famous for his tender madonnas and the great fresco in the Vatican, The School of Athens, a perfect example of Renaissance technique.
- He was a humanist and a careful student of ancient Rome. He was impressed by the way Roman rulers and citizens had then defeded their homeland.
- The more he saw, the more convinced he became that Italian political unity and indpendent were end that justified any means.
- Been argued that Machiavelli wrote The Prince.
Leonardo Da Vinci
- He was a true master of many skills. He was also one of the greatest painters of all time.
- He advocated scientific experimentation, dissected corpses to learn anatomy, and was a self-taught botanist.
- Most famous northern humanist, illustrated the impacts of the printing press. Gained fame both as educational and as a religious reformer.
- Luther condemned him for his views on the freedom of human will.
Pope Julius II
Also known as the "warrior pope"
Pope Alexander VI
Most corrupt pope who ever sat on the papal throne. He was an ally with the French king Louis XII.
- He opened communication with Moctezuma. In 1519, landed in Mexico with 500 men and a few horses.
- When he first met Moctezuma, he may have initially been believed to be the god Quetzalcoatl, wo according to legend, had been driven away centuries earlier but promised to return.
- Landed on Western Coat of South America with about 200 men to take on the Inca Empire.
- He lured Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, into a conference and seized him, killing hundreds of Atahualpa's followers in the process. Atahualpa tried to ransom himself with a hoard of gold, but instead was executed in 1533.
The Printing Press
- Johan Gutenberg invented it.
- Provided educated bureaucrats to staff teh offices of the kingdom. Helped make books economical and manufacture paper.
The War of Roses
- Following the Hundred Years' War, civil warfare broke out between two rival branches of the royal family; House of York and House of Lancaster known as this.
- Henry Tudor would become the king after this war.
They were a ruling family in Florence and was a patron for the arts.
- One of the great artists of the Renaissance.
- He painted the most famous self-portrait of the European Renaissance and reformaition.
- He responded to Ludovico to invade Italy.
- He was the successor of the French king Louis XI.
- He was a close friend of Erasmus and an English humanist.
- He wrote Utopia.
- Became one of Henry VIII's most trusted diplomats.
- Execution due to not recognizing the king's marriage.
- He was the "father of humanism"
- Medieval christian values can be seen in his dialogues with Saint Augustine and in tracts he wrote to defend the personal immortality of the soul against the Aristotlians.