1. Antiseptics 

    Three Examples:
    Antisepetics are microbe- killing chemicals applied to live tissue

    Example... hydrogen peroxide, rubbing alcohol , and iodine
  2. Antibiotics 

    Three Examples:
    Antibiotics are micro-killing chemical taken internally [pill/ liquid form] 

    Example... Penicillin, Ampicillin, Streptomycin, and Chloramphenicol
  3. Disinfectants 
    Applied to inert surfaces

    Includes Chlorine bleach and Lysol
  4. Disk- Diffusion Test 


    Kirby-Bauer Method 
    The effectiveness of these substances in killing microbes
  5. Zone of Inhibition
    The clear zone that appear around the disk.

    Large the zone of inhibition the better the chemical. 
  6. Soil Microflora 
    Astounding diversity and number of microbes, predominantly bacterica and fungi. 
  7. Fixed Nitrogen 
    Nitrogen gas that plants can utilize. 
  8. Nitrogen Fixation 
    Nitrogen gas that has been converted by soil microbes to other compounds microbiological result

    Example ammonia, ammonium ion and nitrate ion
  9. Symbiotic Nitrogen- fixing bacterica

    Legume plants
    Live inside the roots of legume plants 

    Legume plants... clovers, beans, peas, peanuts and soybeans.
  10. Rhizobium Leguminosarum 
    Gram-negative bacterica bind to root hair of young legume plant and cause plant to develop root nodule 
  11. Root Nodule 
    Rhizobium fixes nitrogen gas into ammonia, which plant uses for nutrition
  12. Nutrient Agar (NA)

    1ml or 0.1ml has more microbes 
    Allows both bacteria and fungi to grow

    NA 1ml has more microbes b/c 0.1ml less dilute 
  13. Czapek- Dox Agar (CD)

    Discourages bacteria but encourages fungi to grow
  14. Dilution Equation 
    volume of sample / (volume of sample + volume of diluent)
  15. Pour Plate Technique 
    • Prepare the Nutrient Agar and Czapek-Dox Agar plates.
    • 1ml of 10-4 or 10-2 soil dilution then melted NA / CD
    • 0.1ml of 10-4 or 10-2 soil dilution then melted NA/ CD
  16. Plate Count
    number of bacteria colonies and fungi colonies (fuzzy growth)
  17. Actinomycetes 
    Fungus-like filamentous soil bacterica
  18. Brown Diffusate 
    Brown zone around the colony in surrounding agar. 
  19. Colony- Forming Units 
    CFU/g soil sample = (# colonies on plate) * (1/ volume of sample) * (1/dilution)
  20. Ammonification 
    Production of ammonia from nitrogenous compounds such as casein and peptone
  21. No ammonia or small amount of ammonia

    Moderate amount of ammonia 

    Large amount of ammonia
    faint yellow

    deep yellow to orange 

  22. .1


    1/10      10-1

    1/100     10-2

    1/1000    10-3
  23. Subkingdom Protozoa 
    Unicellular, eukaryotic microbes in the Kingdom Protista.
  24. Pathogenic 
    Cause diseases in humans 
  25. Presumptive Test
    Detect coliform bacteria in a water sample
  26. Confirmed Test 
    follows a positive Presumptive Test, to ensure bacterial contamination due to coliforms. 
  27. Brilliant Green Bile Broth (BGBB)
    • used in Confirmed Test
    • selective medium that must indicate Gram- negative bacteria 
    • differential medium contain lactose
    •  gas bubble produced when coliform are grown (positive Confirmed Test)
  28. Completed Test 
    final analysis of water sample using EMB and MAC
  29. Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMB) AND MacConkey Agar (MAC)
    • selective media that grow Gram-negative bacteria 
    • differential media change colors when certain types of bacteria grown on them
  30. When coliform grown on EMB agar
    colonies have dark centers and green metallic sheen
  31. When coliform grown on MAC agar
    colonies will be pink/red and pink diffusate visible around the colonies 
  32. Contagious 
    easily passed from host to host
  33. Communicable 
    diseases passed from host to host
  34. Epidemic
    one of the worst bacterial diseases of all time cause by bacterium Yersinia Petstis
Card Set
Experiment 6- 11