According to Griffin, scholars who follow the objectivist position believe that theories need to be validated by testing them in a manner similar to the scientific method
All rhetorical critics do interpretive analysis, so all interpretive scholars are rhetoricians.
One measure of a good interpretive theory is the extent to which it reforms society
The cybernetic tradition views communication as a series of systems that are not connected
The critical tradition is concerned with the way that language can be used to perpetuate power imbalances
Symbolic Interactionism is based on the principles of meaning, language, and thought
According to Blumer, interaction claim that the extent of knowing is dependent on the extent of naming
One of the most important contributions of the coordinated management of meaning CMM is its ability to discover principles of communication that hold true for everyone in every situation
CMM suggests that we co-construct our own identity and the identity of the other person we are talking with during conversation.
Pearce and Cronen believe their theory is successful when it helps people create the kind of social worlds in which we want to live
A theorist only needs to think carefully about an idea
One of the problems in spotting liars is they react the same way as truth-tellers being accused of lying
Performances that are seen as too slick can be a sign of deception
According to social penetration theory, self-disclosure has important rules that need to be followed
Depth is measured by how many different aspects of a person's life you are familiar with
If we choose to interact with someone because they have something we want, we are relying on incentive value
When uncertainty is low, reciprocity will be higher
Theories always involve an element of
Most scholars reserve the term "theory" for an integrated _________ of concepts.
Griffin feels that viewing theories as a lens of a camera may cause others to view that theory as
BIASED BY THE THEORETICAL STANCE OF THE VIEWER
The __________ principle of social exchange theory helps us gauge relational stability.
Personality or Comparison level alternative
The content and form of a text is usually _____ by the communicator
ALL THE ABOVE-constructed, selected, crafted
If a person want to get to know a person in class who he or she finds atractive and talks to a friend who also knows the person, he or she is using
According to Petronio's private management theory, __________ refers to the strength of a relationship
The objective and interpretive approaches to theory differ
A and C are correct- a. in a starting point, method and conclusion, c. because interpretive approaches assume that there is more than one reality in the world.
Which of the following statements regarding objective approaches is true?
B. OBJECTIVE APPROACHES ATTEMPT TO FIND UNIVERSAL LAWS THAT EXPLAIN HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN A VARIETY OF SITUATIONS
Which of the following is true about deception?
ALL OF THE ABOVE: a. real or imagined suspicion increases deceivers' strategic activity, b. what deceivers do depends on how well they know their partner, perception of suspicion increases when a respondent's behavior is unexpected
Which of the following methods would an interpretive researcher most likely use?
E. B AND C_ b-textual analysis, c. ethnography
What does interpersonal deception theory say about reciprocation and deception?
C. When respondents are highly involved in terms of body language, deceivers match their intensity
According to Griffin, the behavioral scientists usually describes human conduct occurring because
D. HUMANS REACT TO FOCUS OUTSIDE THE INDIVIDUALS AWARENESS
Critical interpreters value the idea of emancipation, meaning that
C. RESEARCH IS MOST VALUABLE WHEN IT LIBERATES PEOPLE FROM OPPRESSION
Researcher who created symbolic convergence theory is
According to Griffin, the twin objectives of scientific research are
A. EXPLAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT, AND PREDICTING THE FUTURE
Objective theories value the ability to predict future events through theory. Based on this discussion
B. good objective theories may define probability and tendencies
Burgoon's discussion of interaction position in EVT states that a person's initial stance towards an interaction is determined by
C. PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS, EXPECTATIONS, AND DESIRES
Objective theories and interpretive theories overlap when
D ALL THE ABOVE - an explanation of communication leads to further understanding of people's motivation, prediction and value clarification took to the future, practical theories reform unjust practices
When comparing scientific and interpretive theories, the counterpart to a scientific theory's simplicity is interpretive theory's
A. AESTHETIC APPEAL
According to Ogden and Richards' semantic triangle, the relationship between the symbol and the referent is represented by a broken line because
C. THE SAME SYMBOL COULD HAVE DIFFERENT REFERENTS
The _____ tradition might analyze the way a politician used metaphors to win support for his or her policy during a speech.
Within the semiotic tradition, a sign is?
A. A SIGN IS ANYTHING THAT CAN STAND FOR SOMETHING ELSE
ACCORDING TO CARL ROGERS, THE MATCH BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUALS INNER FEELINGS AND HIS OR HER OUTER DISPLAY OF EMOTION IS
Critical theories focus on correcting power imbalances in society, and they might support the claim that
D. ALL THE ABOVE- a. language that perpetuates power imbalances should be eliminated, b. mass media often full fills people's sensitivity to repression, and therefore is problematic c. accepting scientific findings without questioning them is a mistake
Source credibility refers to the
D. AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF THE COMPETENCE AND TRUSTWORTHINESS OF A SPEAKER/WRITER
The critical tradition stems from a desire to explore the ideas of
A. KARL MARX
____________describes how we construct our sense of self by imagining how we look to another person.
A. LOOKING-GLASS SELF
Mead suggests that the self is an ongoing process that combines the "I" and "me". The "I" refers to
A. THE SPONTANEOUS FORCE THAT FOSTERS UNPREDICTABLE BEHAVIOR
Mead names the composite set of information that an individual has of his/her self based on community expectations and responses
C GENERALIZED OTHER
According to Mead, the self
B. COMES ONLY WHEN WE ARE PART OF A COMMUNITY
Mead put forth the idea that humans have a unique capacity to
either b. take the role of the other, or c. be proactive and not reactive
If a person asks the question, "If I win this argument, what type of person will I become, it is an example of the CMM characteristic that states
A THE ACTIONS OF PERSON-IN-CONVERSATION ARE REFLEXIVELY PRODUCED AS THE INTERACTION CONTINUES
One of the problems Burgoon notes about EVT is that it
C IT DOES NOT FULLY ACCOUNT FOR RECIPROCITY IN RELATIONSHIPS
When you choose to hide a secret from your spouse, you are using the strategy known as
If you are trying to deceive your partner about what you did over the weekend by stating "we just went over to Bob's for a party". You are using which disassociation strategy?
C. A GROUP REFERENCE
What is truth bias?
D. THE PERSISTENT EXPECTATION THAT PEOPLE ARE TELLING THE TRUTH
Uncertainty is related to liking in that
C. AS UNCERTAINTY INCREASES, LIKING DECREASES
How is uncertainty related to reciprocity?
C. RECIPROCITY DECREASES AS UNCERTAINTY DECREASES
What is the relationship between information-seeking behavior and uncertainty?
B. WHEN UNCERTAINTY IS HIGH, PEOPLE SEEK MORE INFORMATION
According to Walther, impressions are formed at a reduced rate in a computer mediated exchange, and the subsequent relationships will be weaker in terms of trust.
If someone has started a new relationship and he/she is debating about whether or not to tell his or her mom, that person is dealing with revelation-concealment dilemma.
Relational dialectics suggest that conflicts in relationships are inevitable and can be constructive
If one person usually makes the decision in a relationship and the partner goes along with them, they have symmetrical relationship.
A conversational move designed to gain control of an exchange is called one-up communication
The longer an individual delays in choosing between two equally attractive options, the greater the feeling of post-decision dissonance.
Personal stories are those that carry the ideology of management and reinforce company policy.
More than anything else, Deetz is concerned with the issue of unjust control.
Deetz used the term "codetermination" to describe a decision process that systematically excludes those who are directly affected by the decisions.
McLuhan called the tribal age a time of community because the ear is the dominant sense organ.
Postman argues that television is detrimental to society because it has led to a loss of serious public discourse.
Critical studies are primarily concerned with power relationships in society.
Hall talks about the myth of democratic pluralism, which means
B. HIS GOAL IS TO ACCURATELY INTERPRET POWER SHIFTS
Hall believes mass media
A. IS BECOMING MORE SEXUALIZED LEADING TO A NEGATIVE AFFECT ON WOMEN
McLuhan believed that people focus on media content and overlook the
In McLuhan's Media Map of History, the time of instant communication is the
D ELECTRONIC AGE
In McLuhan's media map of history, the industrial revolution occurs during the
C PRINT AGE
In the electronic age, instant communication has made ___________ more important than sight.
C. SOUND AND TOUCH
Deetz views language as
C THE MEANS OF CREATING SOCIAL REALITY
Deetz's use the term "stakeholder democracy" refers to
A OPEN NEGOTIATION OF POWER AMONG ALL WHO ARE AFFECTED BY CORPORATE DECISIONS
Which of the following statements is an example of what Deetz calls discursive closure?
D ALL OF THE ABOVE
-janitorial staff at a factory is not allowed to make suggestions about improving work conditions
-boss says "its my way or the highway"
-the company monitors employee work stations in order to discourage negative talk about the company
A coworker is telling a _______ story when she warns that the male boss is usually "very friendly" with new female employees at company socials.
Company policies are reinforce by narratives classified as
B. Corporate stories
The point of cultural approaches to organizational life is to
D CREATE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY WITHIN THE CULTURE
Asking a child to make his bed with no promise of reward except a "thank you" can instill attitude change in his based on the
A MINIMAL JUSTIFICATION HYPOTHESIS
The process of avoiding information that is likely to create dissonance is called
______________ can increase post decision dissonance.
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
-the importance of the issue
-the longer the delay in choosing between two options
-the greater the difficulty in reversing the decision
Festinger's research showed that
D. ALL THE ABOVE
-people need to appear reasonable to themselves
-the more effort people put into a task, the more dissonance they feel when it is counter-attitudinal
-if a person recognizes his/her actions have hurt someone else, dissonance is increased
Following up on Festinger's work, Aronson found that
C DISSONANCE IS POSITIVELY RELATED TO THE EFFORT OF THE PERSON HAS INVESTED IN THE BEHAVIOR
When a married couple both have equal power to make momentary decisions, they have a
B SYMMETRICAL RELATIONSHIP
If a partner tries to neutralize control in a communication exchange, he or she is using
C. ONE-ACROSS COMMUNICATION
Watzlawick believes that the ____________ is the most important element to any communication
B. RELATIONAL COMPONENT
The sudden insight that comes from looking at something in a new light is what Watzlawick calls
Relational dialectics states that relationships involve a series of
Baxter and Montgomery use the designation _________ to describe an internal dialectic tension.
A couple who constantly argues over not spending enough time together are likely having trouble managing
Mary is bored by Tom's unwillingness to try new things and says that every Friday night they order pizza and watch a move. They are struggling to manage the internal dialectic tension called
A couple's religious tradition expects them to have children early in their marriage, but they are not sure if it is a good idea. They are dealing with the external dialectic tension named
In Baxter's discussion of dialogue as an aesthetic moment, she suggests that relationships, although filled with contrasting voices, can experience of dialogue by which of the following?
D ALL THE ABOVE
-having a talk that defines the relationship
-having a marriage renewal ceremony
-having rituals that honor conflicting voices
The early computer-mediated communication theory called ________ suggested people will become more self-absorbed and less inhibited because CMC lacks clarity about interaction norms.
D. LACK OF SOCIAL CUES THEORY
Based on Walthers discussion about the exchange of information in a CMC format
D. ALL THE ABOVE
-Impressions are formed at a much slower rate because information exchange is slower
-Relationships that are developed through CMC are as likely to be strong and lasting as are those offline
-people will learn to adapt to the format of CMC and create fully-formed impressions of others
According to Walther's study, warmth was communicated in CMC interactions through
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
-explicit statements of affection
When Walther compared 10 minutes of face-to-face conversation with 400 minutes of CMC what did he find?
A. NO DIFFERENCE IN PARTNER AFFINITY
The tendency for a person's expectations of others to evoke a response from them that confirms what he or she anticipated is called
B SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
The tacit collusion of family members to maintain the status quo is called
A. FAMILY HOMEOSTASIS
People can use cognitive dissonance in practical ways by
D ALL OF THE ABOVE
-not overplaying a reward punishment scheme and working to build trust
-offering enough encouragement to get the other person to step outside of normal patterns of thinking
-getting the other person to appreciate the consequences of behavior from others
Critical theorists fault the cultural approach because interpretive scholars
A REFUSE TO EVALUATE THE CUSTOMS THEY PORTRAY
According to Griffin, Hall's most positive contribution to mass communication study is
B HIS CONSTANT REMINDER THAT ITS FUTILE TO TALK ABOUT MEANING WITHOUT CONSIDERING POWER SIMULTANEOUSLY
A goal of cognitive dissonance theory is to
C EXPLAIN WHY PEOPLE CHANGE ATTITUDES WHEN THEY DO THINGS IN WHICH THEY DON'T BELIEVE
When ethnographers talk about providing thick descriptions they refer to
A. TRACKING EVOLVING MEANING
The reason the face is important is because it is an extension of one's self-concept
Divergence is a strategy by which a person adapts his or her communication behavior to become more similar to another person.
The bases for muted group theory is the recognition that women's thoughts and words are devalued in society.
Viewers will most likely be affected by stories that cover issues where people have high amounts of uncertainty about what to believe.
The person who makes the final decision on what news actually considered "news is the gatekeeper.
People living in individualistic cultures are more self-face oriented.
Gerbner uses the term "mainstreaming" to describe the mechanism that affects heavy TV viewers who have already been victims of violence.
Aristotle defined rhetoric as the discovery in each case of all "available means of persuasion"
Fisher uses the term paradigm to describe the source of people's narratives.
Ting-Toomey believes that the concept of face
D. is a universal concern
Giles views of communication accommodation theory as a/an
C. theory of intergroup and intercultural communication
The strategy people use to adapt communication behavior to become more similar to another person is called
According to Tannen, the basis for male communication overall is to
B. ACHIEVE STATUS
Aristotle's belief that good speakers know when and how to use emotion in their remarks is represented in his discussion of
An __________ is an incomplete version of a formal deductive syllogism.
If a scholar focuses on the skillful use of a metaphor, she or he would be interested in
In intergenerational communication, when the elderly use age for a reason for not performing well it is called
C SELF HANDICAPPING
Fisher's counter to the assumption of the rational-world paradigm that the type of speaking situation determines the course of our argument is that
C PEOPLE LOOK TO THEIR CULTURE TO DECIDE WHAT GOOD REASONS ARE
Muted group theory claims that the biggest problem in communication is that the relationship between a symbol and its referent is arbitrary.
D MEN HAVE PRIMARY CONTROL OF THE LANGUAGE SYSTEM IN TERMS OF DEFINITIONS
Practical wisdom and shared values are part of ethos in that they enhance
B. PERCEIVED INTELLIGENCE
The biggest change in thinking offered offered by the narrative paradigm is the definition of
A. WHO IS QUALIFIED TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION
Gerbner's focus is the TV' portrayal of __________.
The ____________ conflict strategy is high in its concern with other's face and low concern with self-face.
The ____________ conflict strategy is high in concern for both self and other-face.
The ____________ conflict strategy is low in concern for other-face and high in self-face concern.
The study of men's behavior related to storytelling shows that
D ALL OF THE ABOVE
-men tell more stories than women
-men often use humor in their stories in a "one-up" fashion
-men tell stories that often place them in the role of hero
Tannen argues that her theory of genderlect is based on the idea that
C MALE AND FEMALE CONVERSATION IS BEST UNDERSTOOD AS CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
______________ is the mechanism that affects heavy TV viewers who have already been victims of violence.
An audience that believes a speaker has their best interest at heart is being persuaded by
The need for orientation arises from high needs for relevance and
There is a societal constraint that suggests that those with less power should _______ the communication practices of those with higher status.
B ACCOMMODATE TO
Critics of the communication accommodation theory state that
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
-it is extremely complex
-it is falsifiable
When considering men and women's speaking
B WOMEN SPEAK MORE IN PRIVATE CONVERSATIONS THAN MEN
Tannen states that differences between men and women in terms of selling a story are that
C MEN ARE THE HEROES OF THEIR STORIES
According to agenda-setting theory, the media make some attributes more salient through.
McCombs and Shaw have changed the scope of their initial argument of agenda-setting theory to say that the media
D. ALL THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
-tells us what to think about
-tells us what to think
-perhaps tells us what to do
Aristotle refers to the speaker's credibility as a matter of
Aristotle's belief that good speakers need to use logic and sound evidence forms his concept of
According to Tannen, the basis for female communication overall is to
A. BUILD RELATIONSHIPS
Understanding that things are not always what they seem is an essential part of
According to Ting-Toomey and Oetzel, which of the following would show an independent self image?
A. "I TRIED NOT TO DEPEND ON OTHERS"
Face negotiation theory is designed to explain
C CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE TO CONFLICT
The strategy of a person unconsciously using patronizing talk when meeting someone of another generation is called
Gerbner's findings demonstrate that heavy viewers are likely to
D. ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
-think that violent crime is more likely to happen to them than is actually the case
-believe that police officers draw their weapons more often than is the case
-have an increased distrust of other people in gerneral
A person who has had a hostile interaction with a person from another group in the past, will tend to
B ASCRIBE THAT OUTCOME TO THE OTHER PERSON'S SOCIAL IDENTITY
Fisher describes a conceptual framework as
A. A PARADIGM
Fisher's term for describing how well a story hangs together is
B NARRATIVE COHERENCE
If a person tries to determine the merits of a story based on whether the actors acted consistently they would focus on