11.3 Christianity and Medieval Civilization

  1. 12th Century
    • a.      Popes after Greg VII more inclined to consolidate power and build strong administrative system
    • b.      12th century: Church had organized hierarchy
    •                                                               i.      Pope and papal curia (cardinals) at top
    •                                                             ii.      Archbishops controlled archdiocese
    •                                                           iii.      Bishop with diocese
    •                                                           iv.      Priest and parishes
  2. Pope Innocent III
    •                                                               i.      Reached height of its political, intellectual, and secular power in 13th c
    • 1.      Papal monarchy extended sway over both ecclesiastical and temporal affairs and was evident under Innocent
    • 2.      Believed he was supreme judge of European affairs
    • a.      Forced King Phillip II Augustus of France to take back wife and queen after annulment
    • b.      Intervened in German affairs and installed candidate as emperor
    • c.       Compelled John of England to accept papal choice for position of archbishop of Canterbury
  3. What did Pope Innocent III do to achieve political ends?
    • 1.      To achieve political ends, he used spiritual weapons at his command, especially the interdict
    • a.      Impsed on region that forbade priests to dispense sacraments in hopes that people whould exert pressure against their ruler
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Successful in causing Philip to restore wife to queenship

  4. I.                   New Religious Orders and Spiritual Ideals
    • a.      Second half of 11c- first half of 12= wave of religious enthusiasm
    •                                                               i.      Increase in monasteries and emergence of new monastic orders
    • 1.      Cistercian founded by monks dissatisfied by lack of strict discipline at Benedictine monastery
    • a.      Strict
    • b.      Simple diet
    • c.       Single robe
    • d.      No decorations
    • e.       Large time for prayer and manual labor
    • f.       Developed new activist spiritual model for 12th c. Europe
  5. a.      Women in religious orders
    •                                                               i.      Increase in number joining religious houses
    • 1.      High middle ages: nuns from aristocracy who didn’t want/ find husband, as well as female intellectuals 
  6.                                                               i.      , Hildegard of Bingen
    • 1.      Wrote of mythical visiosn; three books based on them; many sought her advice
    • 2.      One of first important female composers and contributor to body of music called Gregorian chant
    • a.      Monophonic: single line of unaccompanied vocal music
  7. a.      Gospel Life
    •                                                               i.      Saint Francis and Saint Dominic founded two new religious orders whose members not cloistered, but went out to preach
    • 1.      More personal religious experience for ordinary people
    • 2.      Known as mendicant (begging) orders
    • a.      Members lived in deliberate poverty= acting against wealth
  8.                                                               i.      Saint Francis of Assisi
    • 1.      Abandoned worldly goods; lived and preached in poverty
    • 2.      Attractive lifestyleà rule to preach and emphasize poverty 
    • a.      Pope Innocent III confirmed Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
    • 3.      Franciscans called for return to simplicity and poverty of early church; female: Poor Clares
  9. Order of Preachers (Dominicans) 
    •                                                               i.      Order of Preachers (Dominicans) originated out of desire to defend orthodox church
    • 1.      Created by Dominic de Guzman, who was appaled by heretical movements
    • a.      Believed in poverty lives but learned and capable people who could preach against heresty
    • b.      Pope Innocent III approved order
  10.                                                               i.      Beguines
    • 1.      Communities of women living together in poverty
    • a.      No vows/ free to leave
  11. a.      Monasticism and Social Services
    •                                                               i.      Most important for religious life in Middle ages
    • 1.      Monks and nuns did a lot (pray, copy, maintain, missionaries, preach, social welfare)
    •                                                             ii.      Monasteries gave food and clothes to poor; hospitality to pilgrims; cared for sick; planted herb gardens; ran hospitals
  12. Sacraments 
    • a.      Sacraments administered by clergy
    •                                                               i.      Outward symbols of inward grace; imperative for salvation
    • b.      Saints
    •                                                               i.      Achieved special position in heaven, enabling them to be intercessors before God
    •                                                             ii.      Development of cults: Saint Nicholas
    •                                                           iii.      Virgin Mary
    • 1.      Most important mediator with Jesus
    • 2.      Human mother of Jesus
  13. Relics
    •                                                               i.      Bones of saints or objects connected to them
    •                                                             ii.      Holiness inherent in relics; belief of being able to heal
    •                                                           iii.      Indulgences attached to relics; brought a remission of time spent in purgatory
    • 1.      Indulgences granted for good works such as charitable contributions and viewings of the saints’ relics
    •                                                               i.      Two pilgrim centers
    • 1.      Rome and Santiago de Compostela
  14. I.                   Voices of Protest and Intolerance
    • a.      Desire for more personal and deeper religious experience led people into direction hostile to church
    •                                                               i.      Holding of religious doctrines different from orthodox teachings became problem
  15. Heresy (Cathars)
    •                                                               i.      Cathars
    • 1.      Albigensians who believed in system in which good and evil were separate and distinct
    • a.      Things good because created by God of light; evil stemmed from Satan
    • 2.      Dualism
    • a.      Souls trapped in material bodies
    • 3.      Believed church ahd nothing to do with God and was evil 
    •                                                               i.      Spread in s. France led to Pope Innocent III appealing ot nobles of northern France for a Crusade against the heretics
  16. Crusades against Cathars (1209)
    • a.      Crusades against Cathars (1209) bloody battle
    • b.      S. France devastated, but Catharism remained, which caused Church to devise method for dealing with hereticsà Holy Office, a formal court whose job it was to ferret out and try heretics
  17. Holy Office
    •                                                               i.      Anyone could be accused of a heresy, since identity was not revealed
    • 1.      Confessed: public penance and punishment
    • 2.      Heretic’s property confiscated and divided between secular authorities and church
    • a.      Those who didn’t confess voluntarily in 1252: tortured
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Relapsed heretics turned over for executions
    • a.      To Christians, heresy was a crime against God and humanity; and force was needed to save souls
  18. Persecution of Jews
    •                                                               i.      Only religious minority in Christina Europe allowed to practice non-Christina religion
    • 1.      Involved in trade and crafts
    •                                                             ii.      In s. Europe, Jews important for cultural and intellectual intermediaries between Muslim and Christian worlds
  19. Religious enthusiasm
    •                                                               i.      Religious enthusiasm of High Middle Ages produced intolerance against enemies of Christianity
    • 1.      Christians searched for enemies at home, persecuting Jews
    • a.      Protectors of Jews in danger too
    • b.      Popes tried to issue decrees ordering Jews not to be persecuted
    •                                                             ii.      Persecuted more and more
    • 1.      Friars urged action against “murderers of Christ”
    • a.      Organized public burnings of Jewish books
  20. Fourth Lateran Council in 1215
    •                                                               i.      Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 decreed Jews must wear distinguishing clothing to separate selves from Christians
    • 1.      Same council encouraged development of Jewish ghettos, not to protect, but isolate
  21. End of 13th Century
    •                                                               i.      End of 13th c., European kings, who were first protectors of jews, had fleeced Jewish communities of money and renounced their protection
    • 1.      Edward I expelled all Jews from England
    • 2.      French king did same, but readmitted them
    • 3.      Most northern European Jews forced to move into Poland 
  22. Homosexuality
    •                                                               i.      Portrayed as a regular practice of Muslims and heretics like Albigensians
    • 1.      1250-1300, it became a criminal act deserving of death
    •                                                             ii.      Legislation against it referred to it as sin against nature
    • 1.      Thomas Aquinas argues that because sex was for procreation, it could legitimately take place only in ways that didn’t exclude possibility
    • a.      Homosexuality contrary to nature and deviation from natural order established by God
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11.3 Christianity and Medieval Civilization