11.2 Catholic Church

  1. Early Middle Ages
    • I.                   Catholic Church
    • a.      Early Middle Ages: converted and civilized first Germanic invaders, Vikings, and Magyars
    • II.                Problems of Decline
    • a.      Popes, since 8th century, reigned supreme over affairs of church
    • b.      Exercise control over Papal states
    •                                                               i.      Involved in politics
    • c.       Involved in lord-vassal relationship
    •                                                               i.      Officials of church hold offices as fiefs from nobles
    • 1.      As vassals, they had duties
    • a.      Bishops and abbots cared little for spiritual obligations
    • d.      Monastic ideal suffered due to invasions
    •                                                               i.      Decline of discipline and monasatic reputation for learning and holiness
    •                                                             ii.      Local lords controlled monasteries
  2. Cluniac Reform Movement and Response
    • a.      Reform began in Burgundy in 910 (e. France) when Duke William of Aquitaine founded the abbey of Cluny
    •                                                               i.      Renewed dedication ot highest spiritual ideals of Benedictine rule
    •                                                             ii.      Kept independent from local control
    •                                                           iii.      Attempted to eliminate abuses of religious communities through emphasizing work, replacement of manual labor with manuscript copying, and demanding more community worship instead of private prayer
    • b.      Response
    •                                                               i.      New monasteries founded on Cluniac ideas
    •                                                             ii.      Old monasteries rededicated by adopting Cluniac program
  3. Reforms of the Papacy
    Gregory VII (1073)
    • a.      Reformers tried to free church from lords’ interference in election of church officials
    •                                                               i.      Gregory VII
    • b.      Gregory VII (1073)
    •                                                               i.      “chosen by God” to reform Church; “god’s vicar on earth”
    •                                                             ii.      Wanted elimination of lay investiture (both interference by nonmenmbers of the clergy in elections and their participation in the installation of prelates)
    • 1.      This was how church would regain freedom
    • a.      Right of church to elect prelates and run own affairs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      If rulers didn’t accept, they could be deposed
  4. Conflict with Germany's king
    • 1.      King Henry IV
    • a.      German kings appointed high-ranking clerics, especially bishops, as vassals for use as administrators
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Without them= king has no power against nobles
    • 2.      1075: Greg forbade important clerics from receiving investitutre from lay leaders
    • a.      Henry didn’t want to obey
  5. Investiture Controversy
    •                                                               i.      disputed election to bishopric of Milan
    • 1.      Important because bishop also ruler of city
    • 2.      Control of it was crucial if king wanted to reestablish German power in n. Italy
    • a.      Milan second only to Rome in importance as bishopric, papacy interested too
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gregory VII and Henry IV wanted different people
  6. Investiture Controversy Actions
    • 1.      To gain acceptance of his candidate, pope threatened excommunication
    • 2.      King called assemblyof German bishops and had them depose pope
    • 3.      Pope excommunicated king= freed subjects from their allegiance to him
    • a.      German nobles wanted end to centralized monarchy due to threat on own power and happily rebelled against king
  7. Investiture Controversy Solutions
    • 1.      Nobles and bishops of Germany held meeting Germany with pope to solve problem, by possibly choosing a new king
    • 2.      Gregory headed to Germanyà Henry saw threat to his power and asked for forgivenessà 3 daysà granted absolution and lifted ban of excommunicationà 3 years later, conflict again
  8. Investiture Controversy Second Conflict
    • 1.      Continued until 1122, when a new German king and pope achieved compromise called Concordat of Worms
    • a.      Bishop in Germany first elected by church officials; afterwards, nominee paid homage to king as his secular lord, who in turn invested him with the symbols of temporal office
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      A rep of the pope then invested the new bishop with symbols of his spiritual office
  9. Investiture Conflict Importance
    • 1.      In early Middle ages: pope depended on emperors and allowed exercise of authority over church
    • 2.      New set of ideals by reformers supported freedom of the church,
    • a.      Freedom of church and claims of papal authority
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Superior to all other bishops and right to depose king
Card Set
11.2 Catholic Church