11.1.4 Germany and Italy

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  1. Saxon Kings
    • a.      Saxon kings of tenth century strengthened hold over German kingdom and revived empire of Charlemagne
    • b.      New dynasty: Salian kings with Conrad II of Franconiaà Henry IIIà Henry IV
    •                                                               i.      They created strong German monarchy and powerful empire by leading armies into Italy
  2. Lords extend power
    Elective Nature
    • 1.      Lords, however, extended their own power after III’s death
    • 2.      Elective nature was a problem
    • a.      Great lords who were electors liked to choose weak king for advantage
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As a result, German kings relied on ability to control church and select bishops and abbots who were used as royal administrators
    • 1.      Struggle between church and state during reign o fHenry IV weaked use of church officials
  3. German KIngs
    • a.      German kings tried to increase pwer by using position as emperors to exploit Italy’s resources
    •                                                               i.      Italy= no central political authority
    • 1.      North= struggle for power by nobles
    • 2.      Central= papal authority
    • 3.      South= conflict with Lombards, Muslims and Byzantines
  4. 11th C-end of 12th
    • a.      11th c: Norman adventured led by Robert Guiscard conquered southern Italy
    •                                                               i.      Brother Roger subdued Muslim Sicily after 30 year struggle (1091_
    •                                                             ii.      1130: Roger II, his son, became king of Sicily
    •                                                           iii.      End of 12th: Norman kingdom one of most powerful in Europe
    • 1.      Numerous cultures required documents in Latin, Greek, Arabic for Christian, Jewish, and Muslim
    • 2.      Wealthy cities tempted German kings although Norman kingdom was beyond German kings’ claim
    • a.      German dynasty that fell susceptible to it was Hohenstaufins
  5. Frederick I
    •                                                               i.      Barbarossa to the Italians who was powerful
    •                                                             ii.      He and Frederick II tried to create new kind of empire
    •                                                           iii.      Instead of building strong German kingdom, he wanted to get his chief revenues from Italy as the center of a “holy empire”—the Holy Roman Empire
  6. Frederick I attempts
    • 1.      Attempt led to difficulties
    • a.      Pope opposed him
    • b.      Cities of n. Italy not willing to be his subjects
    • 2.      Led to alliance of northern Italian cities, with help from the papacy, to defeat Frederick’s forces at Legnano in 1176
  7. After Legnano
    •                                                               i.      After defeat, Frederick returned to Italy and arranged a settlement with the northern Italian cities by which they retained their independence in return for an annual payment to emperor
    • 1.      Had financial base
    • 2.      Married son to heiress of Norman kingdom of s. Italy and created foundation for making Holy Roman Empire a reality and encirclement of Rome and Papal states
  8. Henry IV
    •                                                               i.      Son
    •                                                             ii.      Control of Germany and northern and southern Italy made him strongest European ruler since Charlemagne
    • 1.      Deathà collapse
  9. Frederick II
    • a.      Frederick II was most brilliant of Hohenstaufen rulers
    •                                                               i.      King of Sicily in 1198; king of Germany in 1212; and emperor in 1220
    •                                                             ii.      Raised in Sicily with diversity of people, language, and religions
    •                                                           iii.      Court: brilliant lawyers, poets, artists, scientists, etc.
    •                                                           iv.      Spent much time in Germany; left in 1220, rarely returned
  10. What did Frederick II do and why? What did it lead to?
    • 1.      Gave German princes full control of their territories, voluntarily surrendering real power over Germany in exchange for revenues while he pursued his main goal, establishing a strong centralized state in Italy dominated by his kingdom in Sicility
    • a.      Task: gain control of n. Italy
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Led to struggle with popes, who saw single ruler of n. and s. Italy meant end of papal secular power in c. Italy
    • 1.      Northern Italian cities unwilling to give up freedom
  11. Rudolf of Habsburg
    •                                                               i.      Chosen as German king by princes
    • 1.      Weak kingà princes ensured that German monarchy remained incapable of centralizing power
    •                                                             ii.      Failure of Hohenstaufensà king and Emperor had no real power over either Germany or Italy
    •                                                           iii.      Unlike France and England, neither Germany nor Italy had unified national monarchy
    • 1.      Loose confederations under vague direction of ruler
  12. Death of Fred II
    • a.      Death of Frederick IIà Italy politically confused
    •                                                               i.      Papacy in control of c. Italy
    •                                                             ii.      Defeat of imperial powerà no authority
    • 1.      Emergence of strong city-states with Florence as leadership under Visconti family
Card Set
11.1.4 Germany and Italy
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