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  1. The church and state recovered from the invasions and internal turmoil of the __. __ and development of new kinds of __were becoming evident. The increases in church power was the exalted pope, causing conflicts between church and state. 
    • Early Middle Ages
    • Centralized authority
    • monarchical states
  2. Domination
    • a.      Nobility dominated, but kings began to extend power in effective waysà European states
    • b.      Theory: kings as head of kingdom and leads vassals and subjects into battle
    •                                                               i.      Reality: king ahs limited power
    • 1.      Had to honor rights and privileges of vassals; if not, they could rebel
    • a.      Weak kings overthrown or replaced by another ruling dynasty
    • 2.      Anointed by holy oil, giving position view of being sanctioned by divine favor
    • 3.      War and marriage alliancesà increase in power
    • Conquestsà reward followers land and bind powerful nobles to them 
  3. Domination in High Middle Ages
    • a.      High middle ages: kings found ways to strengthen governmental institutions and extend their powers
    •                                                               i.      Revival of commerce, growth of cities, and emergence of a money economy enabled hiring of soldiers and less reliance on vassals
  4. England in High Middle Ages
    Beginning of 11th
    King Canute
    • a.      Beginning of 11th c.: A-S England fell subject to Scandinavian control after Danes invaded in 1016 
    • a.      King Canute
    •                                                               i.      Continued English institutions and laws and supported Catholic Church
    •                                                             ii.      Dynastic line didn’t hold up
    • 1.      1042: AS kings restored through Edward the Confessorà deathà Harold Godwinson
  5. England in High Middle Ages
    • a.      Conflict:
    •                                                               i.      Edward’s cousin, William of Normandy laid claim to the throne of England
    • 1.      Crossed English Channel with forces
    • a.      Meanwhile, AS forces of Godwinson defeated invading Vikings in n. England and had to quickly go south to face new invaders
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      AS forves v. Norman forces= Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066
  6. England in High Middle Ages
    Battle of Hastings
    • 1.      Both had 7000 men
    • a.      AS: foot soldiers created shield wall at top of hill
    • b.      Norman archers and heavily armed knight
    • c.       AS forces worn out due to exhaustion from their march
    • d.      Day-long battle
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Death of Godwinson
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      William crowned king of England at Christmas
  7. England in High Middle Ages
    William of Normandy
    •                                                               i.      England treated as royal possession
    •                                                             ii.      Domesday Book commissioned in 1086 by sending out royal officials to ascertain who owned or held land in tenancy
    • 1.      Showed Norman royal family had 1/5 of land as royal demesne
    • 2.      Other land held by nobles or church as fiefs from the king
    • 3.      Each vassal had to supply quota of knights for army
    • 4.      Landed nobles allowed to divide land among subvassals
  8. England in High Middle Ages
    Oath of Salisbury Plain
    •                                                               i.      1086: Oath of Salisbury Plain: subvassals required to swear loyalty to William as king and liege lord rather than their immediate lords
    •                                                             ii.      CHANGE caused from AS England to Norman conquest of England
    • 1.      AS England: king with limited lands; great families independent of king and owed lots of land
    • 2.      Normas: hierarchy of nobles holding land as fiefs from king
  9. England in High Middle Ages
    • 1.      Creation of a strong, centralized monarchy
    • 2.      Fusion between Normans and AS= new England
    • a.      Norman rulling class spoke French
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      AS and French= new English language through Norman-French intermarriage with AS nobility
  10. England in High Middle Ages
    Administrative system
    • 1.      Counties divided into hundreds under sheriff, the chief royal officer responsible for leading military forces of the county, collecting royal tolls, and presiding over the county court
    • a.      Modification: William replaced AS sheriffs with Normans
    • 2.      Developed system of taxation and royal courts
  11. England in High Middle Ages
    Repercussions in France
    New Dynasty
    • 1.      New king of England and duke of Normandy= both king and vassal to a king (of France), but a more powerful than lord vassal
    • a.      Connection kept England involved in Continental affairs
    • a.      New Dynasty
    •                                                               i.      Henry I, last son of William, recruited efficient group of royal servants who excelled at finding ways to use courts and tax system to profit king
    • 1.      Deathà civil warà dynasty of Plantagenets under Henry II
  12. England in High Middle Ages
    Henry II
    •                                                               i.      He increased the power of the English monarchy
    •                                                             ii.      Successfully developed administrative and legal institutiosn that strengthened royal government
    •                                                           iii.      Continued development of exchequer, or permanent royal treasury
    • 1.      Royal officials, or barons of the exchequer received taxes collected by the sheriffs while seated around a table covered by a checkered cloth used as counting device
    • a.      Barons gave receipts to sheriffs, while clerks recorded accounts on sheets of parchment that were rolled up= pipe roles
  13. England in High Middle Ages
    Henry's reforms to strengthen royal courts
    •                                                               i.      Reforms to strengthen royal courts
    • 1.      Expanded number of criminal cases tried in the king’s court
    • 2.      Devised ways of taking property cases from local to royal courts
    • 3.      Goal
    • a.      Expand jurisdiction of royal courtsà extend the king’s power and bring revenue
    • 4.      Royal courts found throughout England enabled common law to replace local law codes
  14. England in High Middle Ages
    Henry's Failures
    • 1.      Less successful at imposing royal control over church
    • a.      King had right to punish clergymen in royal courts
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Opposed by Thomas Becket (archbishop of Canterbury), who said only church courts could try clerics and later killed in the cathedral
    • 1.      Public outrage led to Henry allowing right of appeal from English church courts to papal court
  15. England in High Middle Ages
    King John and the Magna Carta
    • a.      King John and the Magna Carta
    •                                                               i.      King’s power resentedà rebellion during Henry’s son’s reign (John), who tried to strengthen royal power
    • 1.      Efforts ingenious at finding new ways to levy taxes, causing baron resentment
    • a.      1205: lost ducy of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Touraine to French King, Philip Augustus
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Failure to reconquer led to English baron rebellion
  16. England in the High Middle Ages
    Runnymede (1215) 
    • 1.      Runnymede (1215), John forced to assent to Magna Carta, the “great charter” of feudal liberties
    • a.      Aim: limiting government practices that affected relations between king and vassals and king and curch
    • b.      Feudal document that recognizes relationship between king and vassals based on mutual rights and obligations
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Underscored idea that monarch should be limited, not absolute
  17. England in High Middle Ages
    Edward I and Parliament
    •                                                               i.      Late 13th c.: Edward I
    • 1.      Accomplishments:
    • a.      Uniting British Isles into single kingdom, but couldn’t subdue Scotland
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Led to conflict between England and Scotland
    • b.      Reestablished monarchical rights after baronial control took over
  18. England in High Middle Ages
    Creation of English Parliament
    • a.      Creation of English Parliament, which was important in developing representative government
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Word parliament applied to meetings of king’s Great Council in which the greater barons and chief prelates of the church met with the king’s judges and principal advisers to deal with judicial affiars
    • 1.      Need of moneyi 1295à Edward inviting 2 knights from every county and two residents (burgesses) from each city and town to meet with Great Council to consent new taxes= first Parliamnet
  19. English Parliament
    •                                                               i.      Composed of 2 knights from every county and two burgesses from every town or city, as well as barons and ecclesiastical lords
    • 1.      Barons+ church lords= House of Lords
    • 2.      Knights andburgessess= House of Commons
  20. English Parliament Jobs
    • 1.      Granted taxes
    • 2.      Discussed politics
    • 3.      Passed laws
    • 4.      Handled judicial business
  21. English Parliament Consequences
    1.      Law of the realm was beginning to be determined not by king alone, but also king in consultation with representatives of various groups of community 
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