CH20 Exam5

  1. What substances are transported throughout the body by the CARDIOVACULAR SYSTEM?
    • nutrients
    • O2 and CO2
    • hormones
    • ions
    • metabolic waste (to kidneys)
    • leukocytes
  2. What are the 2 components of BLOOD?
    • Plasma
    • formed elements
  3. What is PLASMA?
    the liquid matrix of the blood
  4. What are the FORMED ELEMENTS?
    blood cells and cell fragments
  5. What is the FUNCTION of ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)?
    transport O2 and CO2
  6. What is the FUNCTION of LEUKOCYTES (WBC)?
    immnune system
  7. What is the FUNCTION of the PLATELETS?
    blood clotting
  8. Whole blood can be fractionated to form what?
    • plasma
    • packed cells
    • platelets
  9. What is the main component of packed cells?
  10. How many liters of blood do men have? women?
    4-6, 4-5
  11. What does it mean to be HYPOVOLEMIC?
    low blood volumes
  12. What does it mean to be HYPERVOLEMIC?
    excessive blood volumes
  13. What is normal pH LEVELS?
    7.35- 7.45
  14. What percentage of blood does PLASMA make up?
  15. What are the components of PLAMSA?
    • 92% water
    • 7% proteins
    • 1% solutes
  16. Describe the relationship between OXYGEN and PLASMA and CARBON DIOXIDE and PLASMA.
    • high dissolved oxygen
    • for diffusion into tissues

    • low CO2 concentration
    • for diffusion out of tissues
  17. What are the PLASMA PROTEINS and the %age of each?
    • albumin 60%
    • globulins 35%
    • fibrinogen 4%
  18. What are the FUNCTIONS of ALBUMIN?
    • osmotic pressure
    • transports fatty acids and steroids
  19. What are the FUNCTIONS of GLOBULINS?
    • antibodies
    • transport ions and hormones
  20. What is the FUNCTION of FIBRINOGEN?
    blood clotting
  21. Describe the STRUCTURE of RBCs.
    • biconcave disc
    • thin central region
    • no cell organelles
    • no nucleus
  22. What is the LIFE SPAN of RBCs? Why?
    • 120 days
    • no nucleus or cell organelles
  23. Why is it so important that RBCs do not have a nucleus?
    • the lack of a nucleus allows the cell to be more flexible as it travels through the circulatory system
    • more room for hemoglobin
  24. Why is it so important that RBCs have no mitochondria?
    • can't make ATP
    • no mitochondria to take oxygen
    • sooooo, oxygen can go to tissues
  25. What are the classes of LEUKOCYTES?
    • granulocytes
    • agranulocytes
  26. Which types of LEUKOCYTES are classified as GRANULOCYTES?
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  27. Which types of LEUKOCYTES are classified as AGRANULOCYTES?
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  28. Describe NEUTROPHILS. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
    • granules have bacteria killing bacteria
    • are the 1st on site
    • phagocytic
    • mltilobed nucleus

  29. Describe EOSINOPHILS. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
    • inflammation reducing chemicals in granules
    • attack foreign bodies that react with antibodies (ex. allergic reaction)
    • bilobed nucleus

  30. Describe BASOPHILS. What %age of leukocyes do they make up?
    • histamine and heparin released by granules
    • nucleus hidden by granules

  31. What is the function of HEPARIN?
    prevent abnormal blood clotting
  32. What is the function of HISTAMINE?
    dilate blood vessels
  33. Describe MONOCYTES. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
    • phagocytic
    • release chemicals to attract other phagocytes and fibroblasts
    • kidney shaped nucleus

  34. What is the function of FIBROBLASTS?
    produce collagen fibers to surround an infected site and produce scar tissue
  35. Describe LYMPHOCYTES. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
    • specific immunity
    • large, round nucleus with small halo around it

  36. What can LYMPHOCYTES differentiate into?
    • T cells
    • B cells
    • NK cells
  37. What is the function of T CELLS?
    attack foreign cells directly
  38. What is the function of B CELLS?
    secrete antibodies to attack foreign cells
  39. What is the function of NK CELLS?
    immune surveillance
  40. Where are PLATELETS derived from?  What is the main chemical?
    • fragmented pieces of megakaryocytes
    • main chemical is platelet thromboplastin factor¬†
  41. What are the functions of PLATELETS?
    • hemeostasis
    • platelet thromboplastin factor
    • platelet plug
    • contract clot
  42. What is HEMEOSTASIS?
    blood clotting
    release of chemicals to initiate clotting process
  44. How is a PLATELET PLUG formed?
    when platelets clump together
  45. How does the clot get contracted and anchored?
    actin and myosin
  46. What is HEMEOPOIESIS?
    blood formation
  47. What are the steps of HEMEOPOIESIS?
    • 1 pluripotential stem cells
    • 2 differintiate into either myeloid or lymphoid stem cells
    • 3 myeloid stem cells become RBC, platelets, or leukocytes
    • 4 or lymphoid become lymphocytes
Card Set
CH20 Exam5
CH20 Exam5