Env Ch 15a

  1. Fresh Water
    relatively pure, with few dissolved salts

    Only 2.5% of Earth’s water is fresh

    Most freshwater is tied up in glaciers and ice caps
  2. Tributary
    a smaller river slowing into a larger one
  3. Watershed
    -the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
  4. Floodplain
    areas nearest to the river’s course that are flooded periodically

    -Frequent deposition of silt makes floodplain soils fertile
  5. Riparian
    •riverside areas that are productive and species-rich

    •Water of rivers and streams hosts diverse ecological communities
  6. Wetlands
    systems that combine elements of freshwater and dry land

    Wetlands are extremely valuable for wildlife

    • They slow runoff
    • Reduce flooding
    • Recharge aquifers
    • Filter pollutants
    • People have drained wetlands, mostly for agriculture
    • Southern Canada and the U.S. have lost more than half of their wetlands
  7. Freshwater Marshes
    shallow water allows plants to grow above the water’s surface
  8. Swamps
    shallow water that occurs in forested areas

    -Can be created by beavers
  9. Bogs
    ponds covered in thick floating mats of vegetation

    -A stage in aquatic succession
  10. Littoral Zone
    region ringing the edge of a water body
  11. Benthic Zone
    extends along the entire bottom of the water body

    Home to many invertebrates
  12. Limnetic Zone
    open portions of the lake or pond where the sunlight penetrates the shallow waters
  13. Profundal Zone
    water that sunlight does not reach

    Supports fewer animals because there is less oxygen
  14. Oligotrophic lakes and ponds
    have low nutrient and high oxygen conditions
  15. Eutrophic lakes/ponds
    have high nutrient and low oxygen conditions
  16. Inland Seas
    large lakes that hold so much water, their biota is adapted to open water
  17. Groundwater
    • Any precipitation that does not evaporate, flow into waterways, or get taken up by organisms
    • Groundwater makes up one fifth of the Earth’s freshwatersupply
  18. Aquifiers
    Porous sponge-like formations of rock, sand, or gravel that hold groundwater
  19. Zone of Aeration
    pore spaces are partially filled with water
  20. Zone of Saturation
    Spaces that are completely filled with water
  21. Water Table
    Spaces between Aeration and Saturation Zones
  22. Aquifier Recharge zone
    any area where water infiltrates Earth’s surface and reaches aquifers
  23. Confined Aquifier
    water-bearing, porous rocks are trapped between layers of less permeable substrate (i.e., clay)

    -Is under a lot of pressure
  24. Unconfined Aquifier
    no upper layer to confine it

    -Readily recharged by surface water
  25. The Ogallala Aquifer
    •Underlies the Great Plains of the U.S.

    • •Its water has allowed farmers to create the
    • most bountiful grain-producing region in the world
Card Set
Env Ch 15a