Botany Final

  1. What does a cross section of a monocot stem look like? A dicot?
    • the vascular bundles are scattered in monocot
    • in a ring in dicot
    • Image Upload 1
  2. What does the pollen of a monocot look like? A dicot?
    • Monocot = 1 pore or furrow
    • Dicot = 3 pores or furrows
  3. What makes gymnosperms above mosses and ferns?
    The presence of xylem and phloem in the sporophyte generation
  4. About how many species of gymnosperms are there?
    720 species
  5. What do the leaves of a typical gymnosperm look like?
    needle-like leaves
  6. what is the main way a gymnosperm reproduces?
    • via cones but....
    • some produce berry-like structures with seeds inside
  7. True or false: all gymnosperms are woody
  8. what makes the wood of a gymnosperm unique from an angiosperm woody plant?
    • they only have tracheids, which are found in the xylem
    • conducts water
  9. How long do evergreen needles last?
    3 to 4 years
  10. Cycads: describe the tree appearance, cone size and location
    • palm like appearance
    • giant cones
    • tropical
  11. How many species are found in the Ginkgophyta phylum?
    One: Ginkgo biloba
  12. Gnetophytes: are they the missing link?
    No, that's false
  13. Conivers: Describe the seed production, and in which biome they are found
    • cone bearing
    • found in boreal forests of Northern hemisphere
  14. Name the two classifications of angiosperms
    • Monocot
    • Eudicot
  15. Which type of plant dominates Earth's flora?
  16. About how many species of angiosperms are there?
    about 257,000 species
  17. What are the typical forms angiosperms take?
    • herbs
    • shrubs
    • trees
    • flowers
  18. What are the two key traits of the angiosperms?
    • Vessel elements
    • double fertilization
  19. Why have angiosperms been so successful at pollination over the past 140 million years?
    • co-evolution with insect pollinators
    • co-evolution with animal dispersers
  20. Why are angiosperms deciduous? (lose leaves)
    to beat drought
  21. Name the 4 main whorls of a pedagogical flower
    • Sepals
    • Petals
    • Carpels
    • Stamens
  22. Name the two male elements of a flower, and what the entire male portion is called
    • anther
    • filament
    • The male part is called the stamen
  23. Name the 3 parts of the female section of the flower, and what the entire female portion is called
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
    • The entire female portion is called the carpel
  24. Which 2 elements make up the corolla?
    the petals and sepals
  25. What is the difference between complete and incomplete flowers?
    • complete have all 4 whorls
    • incomplete lack one or more whorls
  26. What is a perfect flower?
    has male and female organs
  27. What is an imperfect flower? Give one example
    • staminate or carpellated flowers
    • Corn = monoecious has both stamen and carpels on the same plant
  28. Why does a monocot only have one pore on the pollen coat? Why does a eudicot have 3?
    • monocot = only one sperm tube enters ovary
    • eudicot = three sperm tubes enter ovary
  29. What is an asteraceae?
    a sunflower
  30. What is the dominant generation in the angiosperms?
  31. What sex is the megaspore and where is it located?
    • female
    • located in the ovule
  32. What sex is the microspore and where is it located?
    • male
    • located in the anther
  33. Of the 4 original megaspores in the ovule, how many degenerate?
  34. How many nuclei are there after all divisions and fertilization within the embryo sac?
  35. Draw and label the embryo sack of an angiosperm
    Image Upload 2
  36. How many n is the embryo sac of an angiosperm?
    • 5n because...
    • embryo is 2n
    • endosperm is 3n from 2 polar nuclei and 1 sperm
  37. What is the most important anemophilous (non-living) vector for pollination?
  38. What is the most important entomophilous (living) vector for pollination?
  39. What is the common name for Ophys?
    the hammer orchid
  40. What is the common name for Asclepias? How does it pollinate?
    • milkweed
    • a pollen package gets stuck on insects leg
  41. What is the pollinating vector for Yucca?
    the yucca moth lays eggs in the developing ovules
  42. Image Upload 3
    legume or pod
  43. Image Upload 4
    follicle (milkweed)
  44. Image Upload 5
    capsule (poppy)
  45. Image Upload 6
    • samara (maple)
    • also the scary chick from "The Ring"
  46. Image Upload 7
    achene (sunflower seed)
  47. Image Upload 8
  48. Image Upload 9
  49. Image Upload 10
  50. Image Upload 11
    • hesperidium
    • hesper = Greek warrior with shield (the covering)
  51. Image Upload 12
    • pepo (pumpkin, squash)
    • has a rhind
  52. Image Upload 13
    • pome
    • accessory fruits
  53. Image Upload 14
    • drupe
    • "stone fruit"
    • cherry also
  54. Image Upload 15
    aggregate (raspberry)
  55. Image Upload 16
    multiple fruit
  56. What is the definition of a fruit?
    the ripened ovary of a flower
  57. What is a vegetable?
    • means "to enliven"
    • whatever your mom wants to call it
  58. What is the definition of a plant?
    "A plant is a complex, autotrophic multicellular organism generally well-adapted to a terrestrial existence
  59. Name the taxonomic hierarchy in order, from greatest to most specific
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  60. What is the switching between sporophytic and gametophytic phases of the life cycle called?
    alternation of generations
  61. Where does unlimited growth occur in plants?
    meristems (roots and shoots)
  62. Which cell type is this?
    Image Upload 17
    • epidermis (onion)
    • living at maturity
  63. Which cell type is this?Image Upload 18
    • parenchyma
    • living at maturity
    • thin primary cell walls
  64. Which cell type is this?Image Upload 19
    • collenchyma
    • thickened
    • strands for support
    • CELERY
  65. which cell type is this?Image Upload 20
    • sclerenchyma (hard)
    • "stone cells"
    • AGAVE
  66. Where are carbohydrates stored in plants?
  67. What is the word for "plant death?" Hint: means old man in latin
  68. What is the purpose of auxin?
    • growth in root and shoot
    • cell elongation
  69. What is the purpose of cytokinins?
    • cell division
    • releases buds from dormancy
    • inhibits senescence
  70. What is the purpose of gibberellin?
    • cell division AND elongation
    • stimulate small plants to elongate
  71. What is the purpose of ethylene?
    fruit ripening
Card Set
Botany Final