Main-group metals __ electrons from the atom's __.
highest-energy occupied atomic orbital
Main group nonmetals __ electrons into their __.
lowest-energy unoccupied atomic orbital
What happens with transition metals?
they lose their valence shell s-electrons before losing their d-electrons. Electrons with the highest n-quantum number are lost first
Main-group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with eight outer-shell electrons. That is, main-group elements react so that they attain a noble-gas electron configuration with filled s and p sublevels in their valence electron shell
In terms of ionic radii, what are cations and anions in respect to their parent atom?
cations are smaller than parent atom
anions are larger than parent atom
What is ionization energy?
the amount of energy necessary to remove the highest-energy electrom from an isolated neutral atom in the gaseous state
What is up with the bumpiness on the chart of ionization energy to atomic number?
due to switching of orbitals
Explain ionization energy in terms of periodic trends.
decreaes as we move down group
increases as we move across
the s is filled= more energy
the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to an ioslated atom in the gaseous state
Electron Affinity Trend
Value of Eea results from interplay of nucleus electron attraction, and electron-electron repulsion
Metals tend to have __ and __. They tend to __ one or more electrons.
low Ei and low Eea
Nonmetals tend to have __ and __. They tend to __ one or more electrons.
high Ei and high Eea
When do ionic bonds form?
when an element with a small Ei value comes in contact with an element with a negative Eea value
The formation of a solid is hte opposite of __.
The energetics of ionic reactions can be viewed on a __ which shows how each step contributes to the __.
That energy is called the __ of the solid.
overall reaction energy
lattice energy (U)
By convention, what does lattice energy (U) refer to?