Human Development

  1. What are some of the Gender socialization agents
    parents, extended family, old siblings, peers, teachers, sports figures, actors/characters/coaches
  2. Are fathers or mothers more likely to treat their children differently depending on gender
  3. Who is believed to need more help, boys or girls
  4. This is a rapid change in physical development that occurs primarily in early adolecence. It involves growth spurts and horemone and body changes
  5. Body images during the physical development in asolecence
    girls are more dissatisfied with their bodies due to the body fat increase

    boys are more satusfied with their bodies because of muscle mass increase
  6. Menarche
    the average agee of onset in the US is 12.5

    the average age has declines about four months per decade over the past century becasue of better nutrition and better medical care

    a body weight of 106 plus or minus 3 pounds can trigger it

    the body weight has to be at least 17% of fat
  7. Piaget's Stage of Formal Operational Thought 11-15 years
    begins around 11

    only 17-67 percent of college students are formal operational thinkers
  8. Characteristics of Formal Operational thought
    • considers future implications of present behavior
    • can hypothesize and theorize
    • can consider many possibilities
    • can fully understand abstract concepts and can think abstractly
    • can reflect on one's own thought
  9. juvenile delinquency
    any adolecent who breaks the law or engages in behavior that is considered illegal

    court caseloads for males were three times higher than for females

    female delinquency has increased more than male delinquency over the past 20 years
  10. What are the factors that promote juvenile delinquency 
    • 1) living in high crime neighborhoods and obseving others engaging in criminal activity
    • 2) family discord
    • 3) inappropriate and inconsistant discipline
    • 4) physical abuse in the first five years of life 
    • 5)delinquent peers
    • 6)low self-control
    • 7)low intekkigence and low sustauned attention
  11. Depression
    there is a high incidence of depression in adolescence and adolescent girls have higher rates of depression than adolescent boys
  12. Possible reasons for increased rates of depression in adolesecent girls
    • females ruminate more than males
    • females are subject to more discrimination than males
    • puberty occurs early for females
  13. What are adolescent problems
    delinquency, depression, suicide
  14. risk factors for developing depression
    • depressed or emotionally unavaliable parents
    • high marital conflict between parents
    • family financial problems
    • poor peer relationships
    • problwms in romantic relationships
  15. suicide
    3rh leading cause of death in 10 to 19 year olds 

    2005, 17%  of high school students reported seriously thinking about or attempting suicide 

    females are more likely to attempt suicide, makes are more likely ti succeed 
  16. What are the factors linked to suicide attempts 
    family instability and unhappyness

    pressure for achievement, high control and lack of emotional support

    suicide by person with a close genetic relationship 

    pshycological factors such as depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, hopelessness, ect

    being overweight and preteen alcohol use are also linked to suicide attempts in adolescence
  17. stage of AIDS that the person has no symptoms, but can transmit the disease
    20 to 30% in this stage will develop AIDS within 5 years
    STAGE I (HIV+ and Asymptomatic
  18. stage of AIDS that a person has symptoms including 
    swollen glands
    weight loss
    night sweats
    STAGE II (HIV+ and symptomatic
  19. stage of AIDS that the person has symptoms of AIDS plus one or more opportunistic infection like AIDS  pneumnia or Kaposi's sarcoma
  20. this can have a long incubation period. Some researchers think that the incubation period can be 10 years or more. New drug treatments have been effective in slowing the onset of full-blown  
  21. when in early adulthood is the peak physical performance reached
    between 19 and 26
  22. when are people the healthiest
    early adulthood
  23. what are bad habbits picked up in early adulthood
    • not eating breakfast or regular meals
    • eating mostly smack and junk foods during the day
    • eating excessively and exceedung the normal weight for our afe and height
    • smoking at all or drinking moderately to excessively
    • not exercising
    • getting only a few hours of sleep on a regular basis
  24. the person loses 15% or more of body weight, but still feels fat
       a) the weight loss is unrelated to any physical illness
       b) the onset often follow an episode of dieting ans some kind of stress 
       c) the fashion image in the U.S is related to the incidence of this                
    Anorexia Nervosa
  25. this involves eating huge amounts of food(bingeing) and then purging by vomiting or using excessive laxatives
  26. drinking 5 or more drinks in a row(men) four or more in a row (women) 
    binge drinking
  27. the effects of binge drinking incluse
    • missing classes 
    • phyaical injuries
    • troubles with the police
    • having unprotected sex
  28. How many people in the united states work
    • A) 35% work 40 hours a week
    • B) 18% work 51+ hours
    • C) 10% work less than 30 hours a week
  29. HOw does work influence people
    finacial standings, housinf, how people spend their time, where they live, their friendships, their health, and helps define their identity
  30. characteristics of workplace that are related to stress
    • heavy workload, time pressure
    • not involved with decision making
    • high supervisor control
    • job performancee
  31. What are the physical changes in middle adulthood
    sight, bone loss, health status
  32. accomidation declines between 40 and 59
    almost everyone will need glasses or lenses
    changes in eyesight
  33. there is progressive loss of bine beginning in the early 40s 
    the loss increases around 59
    women's bone loss is about double of mens
    bone loss
  34. more time is spent worrying about health
    health insurance is raised after 40
    health status
  35. re the elading causes of death in middle adulthood
    cancer and cardiovascular disease 
Card Set
Human Development
test on the 28