Chapter 46 Part 2

  1. What are the external organs of the male reproductive system?
    Penis, scrotum.
  2. What are the internal organs of the male reproductive system?
    gonads, accessory sex glands, and ducts.
  3. Image Upload 1
    What is A?
    Seminal Vesicle
  4. Image Upload 2
    What is B?
  5. Image Upload 3
    What is C?
    Vas Deferens
  6. Image Upload 4
    What is D?
    Ejaculatory Duct
  7. Image Upload 5
    What is E?
    Prostate Gland
  8. Image Upload 6
    What is F?
    Bulbourethral Gland
  9. Image Upload 7
    What is G?
    Vas Deferens
  10. Image Upload 8
    What is H?
  11. Image Upload 9
    What is I?
  12. Image Upload 10
    What is J?
  13. Image Upload 11
    What is K?
    Urinary Bladder
  14. Image Upload 12
    What is L?
    Pubic Bone
  15. Image Upload 13
    What is M?
    Erectile Tissue of Penis
  16. Image Upload 14
    What is N?
  17. Image Upload 15
    What is O?
    Glans Penis
  18. Image Upload 16
    What is P?
  19. What is the path that sperm travels through the male reproductive system?
    Seminiferous Tubules --> Epididymis --> Vas Deferens --> Ejaculatory Duct --> Urethra
  20. Testes are the __________________.
    Male gonads
  21. What do testis consist of?
    Many highly coiled seminiferous tubules surrounded by layers of connective tissyes, and leydig cells scattered between seminiferous tubules.
  22. When do testes descend into the scrotum?
    Just before birth.
  23. Image Upload 17
    What is A?
    Urinary Bladder
  24. Image Upload 18
    What is B?
    Prostate Gland
  25. Image Upload 19
    What is C?
    Bulbourethral Gland
  26. Image Upload 20
    What is D?
    Erectile Tissue of Penis
  27. Image Upload 21
    What is E?
    Vas Deferens
  28. Image Upload 22
    What is F?
  29. Image Upload 23
    What is G?
  30. Image Upload 24
    What is H?
    Seminal Vesicle
  31. Image Upload 25
    What is I?
  32. Image Upload 26
    What is J?
  33. Image Upload 27
    What is K?
    Glans Penis
  34. Accessory sex glands ___________________.
    Add secretions to semen.
  35. How much do the seminal vesicles contribute to semen volume?
  36. The prostate gland secretes into ____________.
    The urethra.
  37. What does prostatic fluid look like and what does it consist of?
    Thin and milky, it consists of anticoagulant enzymes and citrate.
  38. What does the bulbourethral gland do?
    It secretes a clear mucus which neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra. It also carries some sperm released before ejaculation.
  39. What is spermatogenesis?
    The production of mature sperm cells from spermatogonia.
  40. What is oogenesis?
    The production of ova from oogonia.
  41. How often does spermatogenesis occur in the adult male? Where does it occur?
    It occurs constantly and in the seminiferous tubules.
  42. Image Upload 28
    What is A?
  43. Image Upload 29
    What is B?
    Plasma Membrane
  44. Image Upload 30
    What is C?
    Middle Piece
  45. Image Upload 31
    What is D?
  46. Image Upload 32
    What is E?
  47. Image Upload 33
    What is F?
    Mitochondrion (they're spiral-shaped)
  48. Image Upload 34
    What is G?
  49. Image Upload 35
    What is H?
  50. Image Upload 36
    What is I?
  51. A large number of mitochondria provide ________ to power the flagellum.
  52. True or false: Females have all of the primary oocytes they will ever have at birth.
  53. What triggers the completion of meiosis II for a female egg?
    Entry of sperm.
  54. If pregnancy does not occur, the _____________ is shed through the cervix and vagina.
  55. Estrous Cycles
    If pregnancy doesn't occur, the endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus.
  56. Hormonal coordination of the menstrual and ovarian cycles involves how many hormones?
  57. What hormones coordinate the menstrual and ovarian cycles?
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogens, and Progesterone
  58. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    Also called GnRH, it is secreted by the hypothalamus and helps coordinate menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  59. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Also called FSH, it is secreted by the anterior pituitary and helps coordinate the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  60. Luteinizing hormone
    Also called LH, it is secreted by the anterior pituitary and coordinates the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  61. LH and FSH produced by the anteriour pituitary in response to ________.
  62. _________ stimulates follicle cells, and follicle cells make ___________.
    FSH, estrogen
  63. Slow rise in estrogen keeps ________ and ________ low.
    LS and FSH
  64. Sharp rise in estrogen causes _________ and _________ levels to peak.
    LH, FSH
  65. LH stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete __________ and ___________.
    Estrogens and progesterone.
  66. High levels of estrogens and progesterone inhibit _________ and _________ secretion.
    FSH and LH.
  67. Near the end of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, what occurs to the corpus luteum?
    It disintegrates.
  68. At the end of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, what occurs to estrogen and progesterone?
    Their levels decline abruptly.
  69. Proliferative phase of mestrual cycle
    Regeneration, thickening of endometrium. Lasts 1-2 weeks.
  70. Secretory phase of menstrual cycle
    Continued endometrial thickening and vascularization, the endometrium develops glands and secretes fluids rich in glycogen.
  71. The luteal phase of the ovarian cycle is coordinated with what?
    The secretory phase of the menstrual cycle.
  72. The estrogens and progesterone of the luteal phase stimulate what?
    The development and maintenance of the endometrium.
  73. The disintegration of the corpus luteum causes what?
    Estrogen and progesterone levels to decline.
  74. Estrogens are responsible for female secondary sex characteristics such as:
    Deposition of fat in the breasts and hips, increased water retention, calcium metabolism, breast development, and female sexual behavior.
  75. How old are women when they start menopause and why does it occur?
    Age 46-54, and it occurs because ovaries are not as responsive to gonadotropins.
  76. Androgens are secreted int the male by ____________ and are responsible for ___________.
    Leydig cells, primary and secondary sex characteristics, sexual behavior, and general aggressiveness.
  77. A human pregnancy averages ______ days from conception.
  78. How long after fertilization does the zygote begin cleavage?
    24 hours
  79. How long after fertilization does the zygote reach the uterus as the embryo in a ball of cells?
    3-4 days
  80. How long after fertilization does the blastocyst form? How long does it take for the blastocyst to implant in the endometrium?
    1 week, 5 days.
  81. Where does the embryo obtain its nutrients in the first 2-4 weeks of its life?
    From the endometrium.
  82. The placenta provides for the diffusion of materials between the __________ and ___________.
    Maternal and embryonic circulations.
  83. During what trimester does oogenesis occur?
    The 1st trimester.
  84. When does the heart start beating in an embryo?
    4 weeks after fertilization.
  85. When are the basic forms of body structures of adults present in a human embryo?
    8 weeks after fertilization.
  86. When will drinking and drugs be most likely to affect an embryo?
    In the first 8 weeks of its life.
  87. What does the embryo secrete?
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
  88. What does HCG do?
    It maintains the corpus luteum and endometrium.
  89. When pregnant, a woman's corpus luteum makes more progesterone. What does this do?
    Increases the mucus of the cervix, encourages placental growth, enlarges the uterus, causes menstrual and ovarian cycles to stop, and causes rapid enlargement of the breasts.
  90. When does the corpus luteum deteriorate? What makes progesterone after it deteriorates?
    During the 2nd trimester, the placenta.
  91. What sets off oxytocin, what does oxytocin do, and what type of feedback loop does it have?
    Estrogen from the ovaries, causes the uterus to contract for birth, positive feedback loop.
  92. What is the first stage of labor?
    The opening up and thinning of the cervix.
  93. What is the second stage of labor?
    Expulsion of the baby as a result of strong uterine contractions.
  94. What is the third stage of labor?
    Expulsion of the placenta.
Card Set
Chapter 46 Part 2
Biology 109 at UMKC flash cards