1. What do you see in a Lateral Position?
    Frontal Sinuses visualized between inner and otuer tables of the skull.

    Sphenoid sinuses appeaer to be continous wiht ethmoid anteriorly.

    Maxilarry sinuses clearly visalized with premolars of the upper teeth extended up through the floor of maxiallry sinuses.
  2. What do you s eei na PA caldwell projection?
    Frontal ethmoid and maxilairry sinuses are clearly viewed. Sphenoid suniusses are not demonstrated specifically because they a re posterior to the ethmoid sinuses.
  3. What do you see in an Open Mouth Waters?
    All foru sinuses are clearly demonstrated with mouth open and the head tipped back to seperate the sphenoid snuseses inferior to the ethmoid sunses. 

    The open mouth also removes the upper teeth from direct superimppsition of the sphenoisd sinuses.

    Mastoid air cells are also visualized on each side poseterolateral to the manidble. They appear as small air filled clusters within the mastoid portion fo the temporal bone.
  4. What do you see in an SMV view?
    Sphenoid sunisees are antrior the large e ning oofhe ramen magnum. Multipl custersof ethmoid air cels extend to each sie of the nasal septum. Manidble and teeth supeimpose the maxialrry sinusess  Also demonstraates aiifiledmastids and the dense petus ortions o the empal boness.
  5. Wheres the froontal sinuses located?
    Between the inner and outer tables of the skull, posterior to the globella and rarely becoem aerated before age 6.

    Generally, the frontal sinuses are larger in men than women.
  6. Where is the ethmoid snuses?
    • Containted within the lateral masses of the ethmoid bone. 
    • Grouped by anterior, middle and poseterio collections.
    • When viewed from the side, anterior sinuses ppear to fill the orbits because portions of the ehtmoid sinuses are contained in the lateral masses of the ethmoid bone, which helps to form the medial wall of each orbit.
  7. Where is the sphenoid sunses located?
    Sphenoid sinuses lie in the body of the sphenoid bone diretly belowe the sella turcica. 

    The bodfy of the sphenoid that tcontaints these sinuses is divided by a thin septum to form two cavities. 

    Some patohlogic procsess make theri prsecence know by their efefct on theses inuses such as the evaluating of air fluid levle iwthin the sphenodi sinuses after a skul trauma which may can indicate a basal skull fracture.
  8. What is the osteomeatal complex?
    • Drainage pathways between frontal, maxilaryy and ethmoid sinuses that can become obstructed by an infection of these sinuses known as sinusitis.
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  10. When does paranasal sinuses begin to develop?
    It begins to develop in the fetus but only the maxilarry sinuses exhibit a definite cavity in birth.

    Frontal and sphenoid sinuses show up at age  6 or 7

    Ethmoidsd develop last at the late teen age years.
  11. Where is the maxiallry sinuses located?
    Paired sturctures one of which is located within the body of each amxilary bone. AKA Antrum.

    Shaped like a pyramid on a frontal view and laterally more cubic.

    Sometimes infections of the molars and premoalrs may travel up to the maxilary sinuses.
  12. Why should all sinuses x-rays be erect?
    To demosntrate AIR FLUID levels.
  13. How many are the four sinuses divided into?
    • Maxilary (2)
    • Frontal ( Usually 2 )
    • EThmoid ( Many )
    • Sphenoid ( 1 or 2 )
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