Psychology Chapter 11

  1. Social Psychology
    Branch of psychology that studies how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment
  2. Sense of Self
    An individual's unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people
  3. Social Cognition
    The mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment
  4. Social Influence
    The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior
  5. Person's Perception
    The mental processes we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people
  6. Social Norms
    The "rules" or expectations for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
  7. Social Categorization
    The mental process of categorizing people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristics
  8. Explicit Cognition
    Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning
  9. Implicit Cognition
    Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, decisions and reasoning
  10. Implicit Personality Theory
    A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors
  11. Attribution
    • The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own
    • Also refers to the explanation made for a behavior
  12. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures
  13. Blaming the Victim
    The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
  14. Hindsight Bias
    The tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event
  15. Just-world Hypothesis
    The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  16. Self-serving Bias
    The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes
  17. Attitude
    A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent
  18. Cognitive Dissonance
    An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent; typically results from an awareness that attitudes and behaviors are in conflict
  19. Prejudice
    A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
  20. Stereotype
    A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define a group
  21. In-Group
    A social group to which one belongs
  22. Out-Group
    A social group to which one does not belong
  23. Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
    The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
  24. In-Group Bias
    The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably
  25. Conformity
    Adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behavior so that it matches the opinions, judgments, or behavior of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation
  26. Normative Social Influence
    Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
  27. Informational Social Influence
    Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
  28. Obedience
    The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command
  29. Altruism
    Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
  30. Prosocial Behavior
    Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
  31. Bystander Effect
    A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
  32. Diffusion of Responsibility
    A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers
  33. Persuasion
    The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of choice
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Psychology Chapter 11
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