1. Access control:
    is a method by which systems determine whether and how to admit a user into a trusted area of the organization
  2. Mandatory access controls (MACs):
    is use data classification schemes
  3. Nondiscretionary controls:
    is strictly-enforced version of MACs that are managed by a central authority
  4. Discretionary access controls (DACs):
    is implemented at the discretion or option of the data user
  5. Identification:
    is mechanism whereby an unverified entity that seeks access to a resource proposes a label by which they are known to the system
  6. Supplicant:
    is entity that seeks a resource
  7. Identifiers can be what?
    can be composite identifiers, concatenating elements-department codes, random numbers, or special characters to make them unique
  8. Authentication:
    is the process of validating a supplicant’s purported identity
  9. Authentication factors
    • Something a supplicant knows -Password -Passphrase
    • Something a supplicant has -Smart card -Synchronous tokens -Asynchronous tokens
    • Something a supplicant is -Relies upon individual characteristics -Strong authentication
  10. Authorization:
    is the matching of an authenticated entity to a list of information assets and corresponding access levels
  11. Authorization can be handled in one of three ways
    • Authorization for each authenticated user
    • Authorization for members of a group
    • Authorization across multiple systems
  12. Accountability (auditability):
    is ensures that all actions on a system—authorized or unauthorized—can be attributed to an authenticated identity
  13. Accountability Most often accomplished by
    by means of system logs and databasejournals, and the auditing of these records
  14. Firewalls
    is Prevent specific types of information from moving between the outside world (untrusted network) and the inside world (trusted network)
  15. Firewalls May be:
    • May be:
    •  -Separate computer system
    •  -Software service running on existing router or server
    •  -Separate network containing supporting devices
  16. Five processing modes by which firewalls can be categorized:
    • Packet filtering
    • Application gateways
    • Circuit gateways
    • MAC layer firewalls
    • Hybrids
  17. Three subsets of packet filtering firewalls:
    • Static filtering
    • Dynamic filtering
    • Stateful inspection
  18. Static filtering:
    is requires that filtering rules governing how the firewall decides which packets are allowed and which are denied are developed and installed
  19. Dynamic filtering:
    is allows firewall to react to emergent event and update or create rules to deal with event
  20. Stateful inspection:
    is firewalls that keep track of each network connection between internal and external systems using a state table
  21. Application gateways
    • Frequently installed on a dedicated computer; also known as a proxy server or application-level firewall
    • Since proxy server is often placed in unsecured area of the network (e.g., DMZ), it is exposed to higher levels of risk from less trusted networks
    • Additional filtering routers can be implemented behind the proxy server, further protecting internal systems
  22. Circuit gateway firewall
    • Operates at transport layer
    • Like filtering firewalls, do not usually look at data traffic flowing between two networks, but prevent direct connections between one network and another
    • Accomplished by creating tunnels connecting specific processes or systems on each side of the firewall, and allow only authorized traffic in the tunnels
  23. MAC layer firewalls
    • Designed to operate at the media access control layer of OSI network model
    • Able to consider specific host computer’s identity in its filtering decisions
    • addresses of specific host computers are linked to access control list (ACL) entries that identify specific types of packets that can be sent to each host; all other traffic is blocked
  24. Hybrid firewalls
    • Combine elements of other types of firewalls; i.e., elements of packet filtering and proxy services, or of packet filtering and circuit gateways
    • Alternately, may consist of two separate firewall devices; each a separate firewall system, but connected to work in tandem
  25. Firewalls Categorized by Generation
    Five Generation
  26. First Generation firewall:
    is static packet filtering firewalls
  27. Second Generation firewall:
    is application-level firewalls or proxy servers
  28. Third Generation firewall:
    is stateful inspection firewalls
  29. Fourth Generation firewall:
    is dynamic packet filtering firewalls; allow only packets with particular source, destination, and port addresses to enter
  30. Fifth Generation firewall:
    is kernel proxies; specialized form working under kernel of Windows NT
  31. Firewalls Categorized by Structure
    • Most firewalls are appliances: stand-alone, self-contained systems
    • Commercial-grade firewall system
    • Small office/home office (SOHO) firewall appliances
    • Residential-grade firewall software
  32. Best configuration of firewall depends on three factors:
    • Objectives of the network
    • Organization’s ability to develop and implement architectures
    • Budget available for function
  33. Four common architectural implementations of firewalls:
    • packet filtering routers,
    • screened host firewalls,
    • dual-homed firewalls,
    • screened subnet firewalls
  34. Packet filtering routers
    • Most organizations with Internet connection have a router serving as interface to Internet
    • Many of these routers can be configured to reject packets that organization does not allow into network
  35. Drawback of packet filtering routes:
    include a lack of auditing and strong authentication
  36. Screened host firewalls
    • Combines packet filtering router with separate, dedicated firewall such as an application proxy server
    • Allows router to prescreen packets to minimize traffic/load on internal proxy
    • Separate host is often referred to as bastion host
    •   -Can be rich target for external attacks and should be very thoroughly secured
    •   -Also known as a sacrificial host
  37. Bastion host contains two network interface cards (NICs):
    • one connected to external network
    • one connected to internal network
  38. Dual-homed host firewalls
    • Implementation of this architecture often makes use of network address translation (NAT), creating another barrier to intrusion from external attackers
    • Screened subnet firewall is the dominant architecture used today
    • Commonly consists of two or more internal bastion hosts behind packet filtering router, with each host protecting trusted network
  39. Screened subnet performs two functions:
    • Protects DMZ systems and information from outside threats
    • Protects the internal networks by limiting how external connections can gain access to internal systems
  40. SOCKS servers
    • SOCKS is the protocol for handling TCP traffic via a proxy server
    • A proprietary circuit-level proxy server that places special SOCKS client-side agents on each workstation
    • A SOCKS system can require support and management resources beyond those of traditional firewalls
  41. When selecting firewall, consider a number of factors:
    • What firewall offers right balance between protection and cost for needs of organization?
    • Which features are included in base price and which are not?
    • Ease of setup and configuration? How accessible are staff technicians who can configure the firewall?
    • Can firewall adapt to organization’s growing network?
    • Second most important issue is cost
  42. Best practices for firewalls
    • All traffic from trusted network is allowed out
    • Firewall device never directly accessed from public network
    • Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) data allowed to pass through firewall
    • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) data denied
    • Telnet access to internal servers should be blocked
    • When Web services offered outside firewall, HTTP traffic should be denied from reaching internal networks
  43. Firewall rules
    • Operate by examining data packets and performing comparison with predetermined logical rules
    • Logic based on set of guidelines most commonly referred to as firewall rules, rule base, or firewall logic
    • Most firewalls use packet header information to determine whether specific packet should be allowed or denied
  44. Content Filters
    • Software filter—not a firewall—that allows administrators to restrict content access from within network
    • Essentially a set of scripts or programs restricting user access to certain networking protocols/Internet locations
    • Primary focus to restrict internal access to external material
    • Most common restrict users from accessing non-business Web sites or deny incoming span
  45. Remote Access
    • Unsecured, dial-up connection points represent a substantial exposure to attack
    • Attacker can use device called a war dialer to locate connection points
    • Some technologies (RADIUS systems; TACACS; CHAP password systems) have improved authentication process
  46. War dialer:
    is automatic phone-dialing program that dials every number in a configured range and records number if modem picks up
  47. Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS):
    is centralizes management of user authentication system in a central RADIUS server
  48. Diameter:
    is emerging alternative derived from RADIUS
  49. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS):
    is validates user’s credentials at centralized server (like RADIUS); based on client/server configuration
  50. Securing authentication with Kerberos
    • Provides secure third-party authentication
    • Uses symmetric key encryption to validate individual user to various network resources
    • Keeps database containing private keys of clients/servers
  51. Consists of three interacting services:
    • Authentication server (AS)
    • Key Distribution Center (KDC)
    • Kerberos ticket granting service (TGS)
  52. Securing authentication with Kerberos
    • Provides secure third-party authentication
    • Uses symmetric key encryption to validate individual user to various network resources
    • Keeps database containing private keys of clients/servers
  53. (Sesame) Secure European System for Applications in a Multivendor Environment
    • similar to Kerberos
    • User is first authenticated to authentication server and receives token
    • Token then presented to privilege attribute server as proof of identity to gain privilege attribute certificate
    • Uses public key encryption; adds additional and more sophisticated access control features; more scalable encryption systems; improved manageability; auditing features; delegation of responsibility for allowing access
  54. Three VPN technologies defined:
    • Trusted VPN 
    • Secure VPN 
    • Hybrid VPN (combines trusted and secure)
  55. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
    • Private and secure network connection between systems; uses data communication capability of unsecured and public network
    • Securely extends organization’s internal network connections to remote locations beyond trusted network
  56. VPN must accomplish:
    • Encapsulation of incoming and outgoing data 
    • Encryption of incoming and outgoing data
    • Authentication of remote computer and (perhaps) remote user as well
  57. Transport mode
    • Data within IP packet is encrypted, but header information is not
    • Allows user to establish secure link directly with remote host, encrypting only data contents of packet
  58. Two popular uses of transport mode:
    • End-to-end transport of encrypted data
    • Remote access worker connects to office network over Internet by connecting to a VPN server on the perimeter
  59. Tunnel mode
    • Organization establishes two perimeter tunnel servers
    • These servers act as encryption points, encrypting all traffic that will traverse unsecured network
    • Primary benefit to this model is that an intercepted packet reveals nothing about true destination system
    • Example of this mode VPN: Microsoft’s Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server
  60. Intrusion correction activities:
     finalize restoration of operations to a normal state
  61. Why Use an IDPS?
    • Prevent problem behaviors by increasing the perceived risk of discovery and punishment
    • Detect attacks and other security violations
    • Detect and deal with preambles to attacks
    • Document existing threat to an organization
    • Act as quality control for security design and administration, especially of large and complex enterprises
    • Provide useful information about intrusions that take place
  62. Network behavior analysis IDPS:
     examines traffic flow on a network in an attempt to recognize abnormal patterns
  63. Network-based IDPS
    • Resides on computer or appliance connected to segment of an organization’s network; looks for signs of attacks
    • When examining packets, a NIDPS looks for attack patterns
    • Installed at specific place in the network where it can watch traffic going into and out of particular network segment
  64. NIDPS signature matching
    • To detect an attack, NIDPSs look for attack patterns
    • Done by using special implementation of TCP/IP stack:
    • -In process of protocol stack verification, NIDPSs look for invalid data packets
    • -In application protocol verification, higher-order protocols are examined for unexpected packet behavior or improper use
  65. Advantages of NIDPSs
    • Good network design and placement of NIDPS can enable organization to use a few devices to monitor large network
    • NIDPSs are usually passive and can be deployed into existing networks with little disruption to normal network operations
    • NIDPSs not usually susceptible to direct attack and may not be detectable by attackers
  66. Disadvantages of NIDPSs
    • Can become overwhelmed by network volume and fail to recognize attacks
    • Require access to all traffic to be monitored
    • Cannot analyze encrypted packets
    • Cannot reliably ascertain if attack was successful or not
    • Some forms of attack are not easily discerned by NIDPSs, specifically those involving fragmented packets
  67. Wireless NIDPS
    • Monitors and analyzes wireless network traffic
    • Issues associated with it include physical security, sensor range, access point and wireless switch locations, wired network connections, cost
  68. Network behavior analysis systems
    • Examine network traffic in order to identify problems related to the flow of traffic
    • Types of events commonly detected include DoS attacks, scanning, worms, unexpected application services, policy violations
  69. Host-based IDPS
    • Resides on a particular computer or server and monitors activity only on that system
    • Benchmark and monitor the status of key system files and detect when intruder creates, modifies, or deletes files
    • Most HIDPSs work on the principle of configuration or change management
  70. HIDPSs Advantage over NIDPS:
    can usually be installed so that it can access information encrypted when traveling over network
  71. Advantages of HIDPSs:
    • Can detect local events on host systems and detect attacks that may elude a network-based IDPS
    • Functions on host system, where encrypted traffic will have been decrypted and is available for processing
    • Not affected by use of switched network protocols
    • Can detect inconsistencies in how applications and systems programs were used by examining records stored in audit logs
  72. Disadvantages of HIDPSs:
    • Pose more management issues
    • Vulnerable both to direct attacks and attacks against host operating system
    • Does not detect multi-host scanning, nor scanning of non-host network devices
    • Susceptible to some denial-of-service attacks
    • Can use large amounts of disk space
    • Can inflict a performance overhead on its host systems
  73. Signature-based IDPS
    • Examine data traffic in search of patterns that match known signatures
    • Widely used because many attacks have clear and distinct signatures
    • Problem with this approach is that as new attack strategies are identified, the IDPS’s database of signatures must be continually updated
  74. Statistical anomaly-based IDPS
    • or behavior-based IDPS sample network activity to compare to traffic that is known to be normal
    • When measured activity is outside baseline parameters or clipping level, IDPS will trigger an alert
    • IDPS can detect new types of attacks
    • Requires much more overhead and processing capacity than signature-based
    • May generate many false positives
  75. Stateful protocol analysis (SPA)
    • is process of comparing predetermined profiles of definitions of benign activity for each protocol state against observed events to identify deviations
    • Stores and uses relevant data detected in a session to identify intrusions involving multiple requests/responses; allows IDPS to better detect specialized, multisession attacks
  76. Stateful protocol analysis IDPS drawbacks:
    analytical complexity; processing overhead; may fail to detect unless protocol violates fundamental behavior; may cause problems with protocol it’s examining
  77. Log file monitors (LFM)
    • similar to NIDPS
    • Reviews log files generated by servers, network devices, and even other IDPSs for patterns and signatures
    • Patterns that signify attack may be much easier to identify when entire network and its systems are viewed holistically
    • Requires allocation of considerable resources since it will involve the collection, movement, storage, and analysis of large quantities of log data
  78. IDPS responses can be classified as 
     as active or passive
  79. IDPS Active response:
    collecting additional information about the intrusion, modifying the network environment, taking action against the intrusion
  80. IDPS Passive response: 
    setting off alarms or notifications, collecting passive data through SNMP traps
  81. Technical and policy considerations when Selecting IDPS
    Approaches and Products
    • What is your systems environment?
    • What are your security goals and objectives?
    • What is your existing security policy?
  82. Organizational requirements and constraints when Selecting IDPS
    Approaches and Products
    • What are requirements that are levied from outside the organization?
    • What are your organization’s resource constraints? 
  83. IDPSs product features and quality when Selecting IDPS
    Approaches and Products
    • Is the product sufficiently scalable for your environment?
    • How has the product been tested?
    • What is the user level of expertise targeted by the product?
    • Is the product designed to evolve as the organization grows?
    • What are the support provisions for the product?
  84. IDPSs perform the following functions well:
    • Monitoring and analysis of system events and user behaviors
    • Testing security states of system configurations
    • Baselining security state of system and tracking changes
    • Recognizing system event patterns matching known attacks
    • Recognizing activity patterns that vary from normal activity
    • Managing OS audit and logging mechanisms and data they generate
    • Alerting appropriate staff when attacks are detected
    • Measuring enforcement of security policies encoded in analysis engine
    • Providing default information security policies
    • Allowing non-security experts to perform important security monitoring functions
  85. IDPSs cannot perform the following functions:
    • Compensating for weak/missing security mechanisms in protection infrastructure
    • Instantaneously detecting, reporting, responding to attack when there is heavy network or processing load
    • Detecting new attacks or variants of existing attacks
    • Effectively responding to attacks by sophisticated attackers
    • Investigating attacks without human intervention
    • Resisting attacks intended to defeat or circumvent them
    • Compensating for problems with fidelity of data sources
    • Dealing effectively with switched networks
  86. An IDPS can be implemented via one of three basic control strategies
    • Centralized
    • Fully distributed
    • Partially distributed
  87. Centralized: 
    all IDPS control functions are implemented and managed in a central location
  88. Fully distributed: 
    all control functions are applied at the physical location of each IDPS component
  89. Partially distributed: 
    combines the two; while individual agents can still analyze and respond to local threats, they report to a hierarchical central facility to enable organization to detect widespread attacks
  90. NIST recommends four locations for NIDPS sensors
    • Location 1: Behind each external firewall, in the network DMZ 
    • Location 2: Outside an external firewall  
    • Location 3: On major network backbones  
    • Location 4: On critical subnets
  91. Deploying host-based IDPSs
    • Proper implementation of HIDPSs can be a painstaking and time-consuming task
    • Deployment begins with implementing most critical systems first
    • Installation continues until either all systems are installed or the organization reaches planned degree of coverage it is willing to live with
  92. IDPSs are evaluated using four dominant metrics: 
    thresholds, blacklists and whitelists, alert settings, and code viewing and editing
  93. Honeypots:
    • is decoy systems designed to lure potential attackers away from critical systems and encourage attacks against the themselves
    • Divert attacker from accessing critical systems
    • Collect information about attacker’s activity
    • Encourage attacker to stay on system long enough for administrators to document event and, perhaps, respond
  94. Honeynets
    is collection of honeypots connecting several honey pot systems on a subnet
  95. Padded cell:
    • is honeypot that has been protected so it cannot be easily compromised
    • operates in tandem with a traditional IDS
    • When the IDS detects attackers, it seamlessly transfers them to a special simulated environment where they can cause no harm
  96. Honeypots, Honeynets, and Padded Cell Systems: Advantages
    • Attackers can be diverted to targets they cannot damage
    • Administrators have time to decide how to respond to attacker
    • Attackers’ actions can be easily and more extensively monitored, and records can be used to refine threat models and improve system protections
    • Honey pots may be effective at catching insiders who are snooping around a network
  97. Honeypots, Honeynets, and Padded Cell Systems: Disadvantages
    • Legal implications of using such devices are not well defined
    • Honeypots and padded cells have not yet been shown to be generally useful security technologies
    • Expert attacker, once diverted into a decoy system, may become angry and launch a more hostile attack against an organization’s systems
    • Administrators and security managers will need a high level of expertise to use these systems
  98. Trap and Trace Systems
    • Use combination of techniques to detect an intrusion and trace it back to its source
    • Trap usually consists of honeypot or padded cell and alarm
  99. Legal drawbacks to trap and trace
    • Enticement
    • Entrapment
    • Enticement is legal and ethical, entrapment is not
  100. Entrapment:
    • action of luring an individual into committing a crime to get a conviction
    • illegal
  101. Enticement:
    • process of attracting attention to system by placing tantalizing bits of information in key locations
    • legal and ethical
  102. Attack protocol 
    is series of steps or processes used by an attacker, in a logical sequence, to launch attack against a target system or network
  103. Fingerprinting:
    • is systematic survey of all of target organization’s Internet addresses collected during the footprinting phase
    • reveals useful information about internal structure and operational nature of target system or network for anticipated attack
  104. Footprinting:
    is the organized research of Internet addresses owned or controlled by a target organization
  105. Port Scanners
    • Tools used by both attackers and defenders to identify computers active on a network and other useful information
    • Can scan for specific types of computers, protocols, or resources, or their scans can be generic
    • The more specific the scanner is, the better it can give attackers and defenders useful information
  106. Passive vulnerability scanners
    • is listen in on network and determine vulnerable versions of both server and client software
    • have ability to find client-side vulnerabilities typically not found in active scanners
  107. Active vulnerability scanners
    is scan networks for highly detailed information; initiate traffic to determine holes
  108. Packet Sniffers
    • Network tool that collects copies of packets from network and analyzes them
    • Can provide network administrator with valuable information for diagnosing and resolving networking issues
    • In the wrong hands, a sniffer can be used to eavesdrop on network traffic
    • To use legally, administrator must be on network that organization owns, be under direct authorization of owners of network, and have knowledge and consent of the content creators
  109. A wireless security toolkit should include the ability to
    • to sniff wireless traffic,
    • scan wireless hosts,
    • and assess level of privacy or confidentiality afforded on the wireless network
  110. Biometric Access Control
    • Based on the use of some measurable human characteristic or trait to authenticate the identity of a proposed systems user (a supplicant)
    • Relies upon recognition
    • Includes fingerprint comparison, palm print comparison, hand geometry, facial recognition using a photographic id card or digital camera, retinal print, iris pattern
  111. Characteristics considered truly unique:
    fingerprints, retina of the eye, iris of the eye
  112. Biometric technologies evaluated on three basic criteria:
    • False reject rate: the rejection of legitimate users
    • False accept rate: the acceptance of unknown users
    • Crossover error rate (CER):  the point where false reject and false accept rates cross when graphed
  113. Bit stream:
    is each plaintext bit transformed into cipher bit one bit at a time
  114. Block cipher:
    is  message divided into blocks (e.g., sets of 8- or 16-bit blocks) and each is transformed into encrypted block of cipher bits using algorithm and key
  115. Polyalphabetic substitution:
    is more advanced; uses two or more alphabets
  116. Vigenère cipher:
    is advanced cipher type that uses simple polyalphabetic code; made up of 26 distinct cipher alphabets
  117. Transposition Cipher
    • Easy to understand, but if properly used, produces ciphertext that is difficult to decipher
    • Rearranges values within a block to create ciphertext
    • Can be done at the bit level or at the byte (character) level
    • To make the encryption even stronger, the keys and block sizes can be made much larger
  118. Exclusive OR (XOR)
    • Function of Boolean algebra; two bits are compared
    • If two bits are identical, result is binary 0
    • If two bits not identical, result is binary 1
    • A very simple symmetric cipher that is used in many applications where security is not a defined requirement
  119. Vernam Cipher
    • Developed at AT&T
    • Uses set of characters once per encryption process
    • To perform:
    •  -The pad values are added to numeric values that represent the plaintext that needs to be encrypted
    •  -Each character of the plaintext is turned into a number and a pad value for that position is added
    •  -The resulting sum for that character is then converted back to a ciphertext letter for transmission
    •  -If the sum of the two values exceeds 26, then 26 is subtracted from the total
  120. Algorithm is the mechanical process of:
    • Looking up the references from the ciphertext
    • Converting each reference to a word by using the ciphertext’s value and the key
  121. Book or Running Key Cipher
    • Uses text in book as key to decrypt a message
    • Ciphertext contains codes representing page, line, and word numbers
    • Typical sources are dictionaries and thesauruses
  122. Hash Functions
    is Mathematical algorithms that generate message summary/digest to confirm message identity and confirm no content has changed
  123. Hash algorithms: 
    publicly known functions that create hash value
  124. Data Encryption Standard (DES):
    • is one of most popular symmetric encryption cryptosystems
    • 64-bit block size; 56-bit key
    • Adopted by NIST in 1976 as federal standard for encrypting non-classified information
  125. Symmetric Encryption
    • Uses same “secret key” to encipher and decipher message
    • Encryption methods can be extremely efficient, requiring minimal processing
    • Both sender and receiver must possess encryption key
    • If either copy of key is compromised, an intermediate can decrypt and read messages
  126. Triple DES (3DES): 
    created to provide security far beyond DES
  127. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): 
    developed to replace both DES and 3DES
  128. Asymmetric Encryption
    • Also known as public-key encryption
    • Uses two different but related keys
    • Either key can encrypt or decrypt message
    • If Key A encrypts message, only Key B can decrypt
    • Highest value when one key serves as private key and the other serves as public key
    • RSA algorithm: first public key encryption algorithm to provide security for e-commerce apps
  129. Encryption Key Size
    • When using ciphers, size of cryptovariable or key is very important
    • Strength of many encryption applications and cryptosystems measured by key size
    • For cryptosystems, security of encrypted data is not dependent on keeping encrypting algorithm secret
    • Cryptosystem security depends on keeping some or all of elements of cryptovariable(s) or key(s) secret
  130. Potential areas of use of Cryptographic Tools include:
    • Ability to conceal the contents of sensitive messages
    • Verify the contents of messages and the identities of their senders
  131. Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
    is Integrated system of software, encryption methodologies, protocols, legal agreements, and third-party services enabling users to communicate securely
  132. PKI protects information assets in several ways:
    • Authentication 
    • Integrity 
    • Privacy 
    • Authorization 
    • Nonrepudiation
  133. Typical PKI solution protects the transmission and reception of secure information by integrating:
    • A certificate authority (CA) 
    • A registration authority (RA) 
    • Certificate directories
    • Management protocols 
    • Policies and procedures
  134. Digital Signatures
    • is Created in response to rising need to verify information transferred using electronic systems
    • Asymmetric encryption processes used to create
  135. Nonrepudiation:
    is the process that verifies the message was sent by the sender and thus cannot be refuted
  136. Digital Certificates
    • is Electronic document containing key value and identifying information about entity that controls key
    • attached to certificate’s container file to certify file is from entity it claims to be from
  137. Distinguished name (DN):
     uniquely identifies a certificate entity
  138. Steganography
    • Process of hiding information
    • Has been in use for a long time
    • Most popular modern version hides information within files appearing to contain digital pictures or other images
    • Some applications hide messages in .bmp, .wav, .mp3, and .au files, as well as in unused space on CDs and DVDs
  139. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol:
    • is uses public key encryption to secure channel over public
    • Internet
  140. Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP):
    • is extended version of Hypertext Transfer Protocol; provides for encryption of individual messages between client and server across Internet
    • is the application of SSL over HTTP
    • -Allows encryption of information passing between computers through protected and secure virtual connection
  141. Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME):
    is builds on Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) encoding format by adding encryption and authentication
  142. Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM):
    is proposed as standard to function with public-key cryptosystems; uses 3DES symmetric key encryption
  143. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP):
    • is uses IDEA Cipher for message encoding
    • hybrid cryptosystem designed in 1991 by Phil Zimmermann
    • Combined best available cryptographic algorithms to become open source de facto standard for encryption and authentication of e-mail and file storage applications
  144. Secure Electronic Transactions (SET):
    • is developed by MasterCard and VISA in 1997 to provide protection from electronic payment fraud
    • Uses DES to encrypt credit card information transfers
    • Provides security for both Internet-based credit card transactions and credit card swipe systems in retail stores
  145. Next Generation Wireless Protocols:
    Robust Secure Networks (RSN), AES – Counter Mode Encapsulation, AES – Offset Codebook Encapsulation
  146. Bluetooth:
    can be exploited by anyone within approximately 30 foot range, unless suitable security controls are implemented
  147. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec):
    • is open source protocol to secure communications across any IP-based network
    • designed to protect data integrity, user confidentiality, and authenticity at IP packet level
    • combines several different cryptosystems: Diffie-Hellman; public key cryptography; bulk encryption algorithms; digital certificates
    • an open-source protocol framework for security development within the TCP/IP family of protocol standards
  148. IPSec uses several different cryptosystems:
    • Diffie-Hellman key exchange for deriving key material between peers on a public network
    • Public key cryptography for signing the Diffie-Hellman exchanges to guarantees identity
    • Bulk encryption algorithms for encrypting the data
    • Digital certificates signed by a certificate authority to act as digital ID cards
  149. PGP security solution provides six services:
    • authentication by digital signatures;
    • message encryption;
    • compression;
    • e-mail compatibility;
    • segmentation;
    • key management
  150. Man-in-the-Middle Attack
    • Designed to intercept transmission of public key or insert known key structure in place of requested public key
    • From victim’s perspective, encrypted communication appears to be occurring normally, but in fact, attacker receives each encrypted message, decodes, encrypts, and sends to originally intended recipient
    • Establishment of public keys with digital signatures can prevent
  151. Correlation Attacks
    • Collection of brute-force methods that attempt to deduce statistical relationships between structure of unknown key and ciphertext
    • Differential and linear cryptanalysis have been used to mount successful attacks
    • Only defense is selection of strong cryptosystems, thorough key management, and strict adherence to best practices of cryptography in frequency of changing keys
  152. Dictionary Attacks
    is Attacker encrypts every word in a dictionary using same cryptosystem used by target
  153. Timing Attacks
    • is Attacker eavesdrops during victim’s session
    • Uses statistical analysis of user’s typing patterns and inter-keystroke timings to discern sensitive session information
    • Can be used to gain information about encryption key and possibly cryptosystem in use
    • Once encryption successfully broken, attacker may launch a replay attack (an attempt to resubmit recording of deciphered authentication to gain entry into secure source)
  154. Seven major sources of physical loss:
    • Extreme temperature
    • Gases
    • Liquids
    • Living organisms
    • Projectiles
    • Movement
    • Energy anomalies
  155. Community roles
    • General management: responsible for facility security
    • IT management and professionals: responsible for environmental and access security
    • Information security management and professionals: perform risk assessments and implementation reviews
  156. Secure facility:
    • is physical location engineered with controls designed to minimize risk of attacks from physical threats
    • can take advantage of natural terrain, traffic flow, and degree of urban development; can complement these with protection mechanisms (fences, gates, walls, guards, alarms)
  157. Physical Security Controls
    • .Walls, fencing, and gates -.Guards  -.Dogs  
    • -ID cards and badges -Locks and keys –Mantraps
    • Electronic monitoring -Alarms and alarm systems
    • Computer rooms and wiring closets
    • -Interior walls and doors
  158. ID Cards and Badges
    • Ties physical security with information access control
    • ID card is typically concealed
    • Name badge is visible
    • Serve as simple form of biometrics (facial recognition)
    • Should not be only means of control as cards can be easily duplicated, stolen, and modified
  159. Tailgating:
    is occurs when unauthorized individual follows authorized user through the control
  160. Two types of locks:
    mechanical and electromechanical
  161. Locks can also be divided into four categories:
    • manual,
    • programmable,
    • electronic,
    • biometric
  162. Locks fail in one of two ways:
    • Fail-safe lock 
    • Fail-secure lock
  163. Mantrap
    • Small enclosure that has entry point and different exit point
    • Individual enters mantrap, requests access, and if verified, is allowed to exit mantrap into facility
    • Individual denied entry is not allowed to exit until security official overrides automatic locks of the enclosure
  164. Electronic Monitoring
    • Records events where other types of physical controls are impractical or incomplete
    • May use cameras with video recorders; includes closed-circuit television (CCT) systems
  165. Electronic Monitoring: Drawbacks
    • Reactive; does not prevent access or prohibited activity 
    • Recordings often are not monitored in real time; must be reviewed to have any value
  166. Alarms and alarm systems
    • Alarm systems notify when an event occurs
    • Detect fire, intrusion, environmental disturbance, or an interruption in services
    • Rely on sensors that detect event; e.g., motion detectors, smoke detectors, thermal detectors, glass breakage detectors, weight sensors, contact sensors, vibration sensors
  167. Computer rooms and wiring closets
    • Require special attention to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information
    • Logical controls easily defeated if attacker gains physical access to computing equipment
    • Custodial staff often the least scrutinized persons who have access to offices; are given greatest degree of unsupervised access
  168. Interior walls and doors
    • Information asset security sometimes compromised by construction of facility walls and doors
    • Facility walls typically either standard interior or firewall
    • High-security areas must have firewall-grade walls to provide physical security from potential intruders and improve resistance to fires
    • Doors allowing access to high security rooms should be evaluated
    • Recommended that push or crash bars be installed on computer rooms and closets
  169. Fire Security and Safety 
    • Most serious threat to safety of people who work in an organization is possibility of fire
    • Fires account for more property damage, personal injury, and death than any other threat
    • Imperative that physical security plans examine and implement strong measures to detect and respond to fires
  170. Fire suppression systems:
    devices installed and maintained to detect and respond to a fire
  171. Flame point:
    temperature of ignition
  172. Deny an environment of heat, fuel, or oxygen
    • Water and water mist systems
    • Carbon dioxide systems
    • Soda acid systems
    • Gas-based systems
  173. Fire detection
    • systems fall into two general categories: manual and automatic
    • Part of a complete fire safety program includes individuals that monitor chaos of fire evacuation to prevent an attacker accessing offices 
  174. three basic types of fire detection systems:
    • thermal detection,
    • smoke detection,
    • flame detection
  175. Fire suppression 
    • Systems consist of portable, manual, or automatic apparatus
    • Portable extinguishers are rated by the type of fire: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D
    • Installed systems apply suppressive agents; usually either sprinkler or gaseous systems
  176. Gaseous emission systems
    • Until recently, two types of systems: carbon dioxide and Halon
    • Carbon dioxide robs a fire of oxygen supply
    • Halon is clean but has been classified as an ozone-depleting substance; new installations are prohibited
    • Alternative clean agents include FM-200, Inergen, carbon dioxide, FE-13 (trifluromethane) 
  177. Areas within heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that can cause damage to information systems include:
    • Temperature
    • Filtration
    • Humidity 
    • Static electricity
  178. Ventilation shafts
    • While ductwork is small in residential buildings, in large commercial buildings it can be large enough for an individual to climb though
    • If vents are large, security can install wire mesh grids at various points to compartmentalize the runs
  179. Power management and conditioning
    • Electrical quantity (voltage level, amperage rating) and quality of power (cleanliness, proper installation) are concerns
    • Noise that interferes with the normal 60 Hertz cycle can result in inaccurate time clocks or unreliable internal clocks inside CPU
  180. Grounding and amperage
    • Grounding ensures that returning flow of current is properly discharged to ground
    • Overloading a circuit causes problems with circuit tripping and can overload electrical cable, increasing risk of fire
    • ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI): capable of quickly identifying and interrupting a ground fault
  181. Four basic UPS configurations:
    • Standby 
    • Ferroresonant standby 
    • Line-interactive 
    • True online (double conversion online)
  182. Three methods of data interception:
    • Direct observation
    • Interception of data transmission
    • Electromagnetic interception
  183. Controls support security and retrieval of lost or stolen laptops 
    • CompuTrace software, stored on laptop; reports to a central monitoring center
    • Burglar alarms made up of a PC card that contains a motion detector
  184. Telecommuting:
    computing using telecommunications including Internet, dial-up, or leased point-to-point links
  185. Remote site computing:
    is  away from organizational facility
  186. Benefit of outsourcing:
    gaining experience and knowledge of agencies
  187. Downside of outsourcing:
    • high expense,
    • loss of control over individual components,
    • and level of trust that must be placed in another company
  188. Social engineering:
    is use of people skills to obtain information from employees that should not be released
Card Set
Exam for IS430