- an American statesman, soldier and congressman. He led an investigation
- into the alleged American involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom
- of Hawai'i.
- a politician and juristof Hawaiʻi as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory. participated in a revolution in 1887 in which local businessmen, sugar planters and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles forced adoption of the 1887 Constitution of
- the Kingdom of Hawaii written by Interior Minister Lorrin A. Thurston. It stripped voting rights from all
- Asians outright, and disenfranchised poor Native Hawaiians and other citizens by imposing income
- and wealth requirements for voting, thus effectively consolidating power
- with the elite Native Hawaiian, European and American subjects of the
- kingdom. In addition, it minimized the power of the monarch in favor of
- more influential governance by the Privy Council, the royal cabinet.
- Kalākaua later appointed Dole a justice of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
- Supreme Court.
Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III)
- Hawaii evolved from an absolute monarchy to a Christian
- constitutional monarchy with the
- signing of both the 1840 Constitution
- and 1852 Constitution.
- He was the longest reigning
- monarch in the history of the Kingdom, ruling for 29 years and 192
- days, although in the early part of his reign he was under a regency by
- Queen Kaʻahumanu and later by Kaʻahumanu
- II. His goal was the careful balancing of modernization by adopting
- Western ways, while keeping his nation intact. As the years passed,
- Kamehameha III found himself resigned to the changing landscape of
- Hawaii. His rebellious nature softened as his authority was compromised
- by outside influences.
Alexander Liholiho Iolani (Kamehameha IV)
- Alexander and Queen Emma devoted much of their reign to providing
- quality healthcare and education
- for their subjects. They were concerned that foreign ailments and
- diseases like leprosy and influenza
- were decimating the native Hawaiian population. In 1855, Alexander
- addressed his legislature to promote an ambitious public healthcare
- agenda that included the building of public hospitals and homes for the
- elderly. The legislature, empowered by the Constitution of 1852
- which limited the King's authority, struck down the healthcare plan.
- King Kalākaua earned the nickname "the Merrie Monarch," because of his
- love of joyful elements of life. This was a reference to the nickname of
- the pleasure-loving Charles II of England. Under his reign, hula was
- revived, which had been banned by Queen Ka'ahumanu in the 1830 after
- converting to Christianity. Today, his name lives on in the Merrie Monarch Festival, a hula
- festival named in his honor. He is also known to have revived the
- Hawaiian martial art, Lua,
- and surfing.
- He and his brother and sisters were known as the "Royal Fours" for
- their musical talents. He wrote Hawaii Ponoi, which is the state song of Hawaii
- today. King Kalākaua's ardent support of the then newly-introduced ukulele
- as a Hawaiian instrument led to its becoming symbolic of Hawaii and
- Hawaiian culture.
Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole
- After the rule of the House of Kamehameha ended with the death of King Kamehameha
- V in 1872, and King Liholiho died in 1874, the House of Kalākaua ascended to the throne of the Kingdom
- of Hawaiʻi. He became an orphan after his father
- died in 1880 and mother in 1884. Kalanianaʻole was
- adopted by King David Kalākaua's wife, Queen Kapiʻolani, who was his maternal aunt. This
- practice was called hānai, a traditional form of adoption widely
- used in ancient Hawaii which made Kalanianaʻole
- a royal prince. When Kalākaua came to power Kalanianaʻole
- was appointed to the royal Cabinet administering the Department of the
- Interior. After Kalākaua's death in 1891, Liliʻuokalani
- became queen, and she continued to favour Kalanianaʻole.
- However, in 1893 the overthrow of the Kingdom of
- Hawaii put in power first a Provisional Government of
- Hawaii, and then a republic with no role for monarchs. Liliʻuokalani
- continued to hope she could be restored to the throne, while American
- businesmen lobbied for annexation.
- Liliʻuokalani was arrested on 16 January 1895
- (several days after a failed rebellion by Robert Wilcox) when firearms
- were found in the gardens of her home, of which she denied any
- knowledge. She was sentenced to five years of hard labor in prison by a
- military tribunal and fined $5,000, but the sentence was commuted to
- imprisonment in an upstairs bedroom of ʻIolani Palace, where she composed many
- famous songs including The Queen's Prayer (Ke Aloha o Ka Haku) and began
- work on her memoirs, Hawaiʻi's Story by Hawaiʻi's
- Upon her death, Liliʻuokalani dictated in her will that all of
- her possessions and properties be sold and the money raised would go to
- the Queen Liliʻuokalani Children's Trust to help orphaned
- and indigent children. The Queen Liliʻuokalani
- Trust Fund is still in existence today.
Commander George Paulett
Lord George Paulet
- An even more serious threat occurred on February 13, 1843. Lord George
- Paulet of the Royal Navy warship HMS Carysfort, entered Honolulu Harbor and
- demanded that King Kamehameha III cede the islands to the British Crown.
- Under the guns of the frigate, Kamehameha III surrendered to Paulet on
- February 25, writing to his people:
- "Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and
- people from foreign lands?
- Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of
- difficulties into which I have been brought without cause, therefore I
- have given away the life of our land. Hear ye! but my rule over you, my
- people, and your privileges will continue, for I have hope that the life
- of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.
- Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.
- Kamehameha III
- politician from Palau. He served as the third President of Palau from 25 October 1985 until he committed
- suicide on 20 August 1988, amid bribery allegations.
- Salii was involved in the Palau Constitutional Convention of 1978.
- After the Constitution took effect in 1981, he became an ambassador
- until 1984, when he became a senator, representing Koror in the
- Palau National Congress.
John L. Stevens
- was the United States Department of
- State Minister to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 when he was accused of conspiring
- to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in association with the Committee of Safety, led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole – the first Americans attempting to overthrow a
- foreign government under the auspices of a United States government
- John L. Stevens, journalist, author, minister, newspaper publisher and
- diplomat, was also a Maine State Senator who was a founder of the Republican Party in Maine.
- a politician from Palau. He served as the first President of Palau from 2 March 1981 until his assassination
- on 30 June 1985. He is buried at Kloulklubed
- in his home state of Peleliu. Remeliik was of mixed Japanese and Palauan
Harold "Freddy" Rice
- Rice v. Cayetano, 528
- U.S. 495 (2000), was a case
- filed in 1996 by Big Island rancher Harold "Freddy" Rice against the state
- of Hawaii
- and argued before the United States Supreme Court.
- In 2000 the court ruled that the state could not restrict eligibility
- to vote in elections for the Board of
- Trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to
- persons of Native Hawaiian descent.
- On July 26 Admiral Thomas sailed into Honolulu harbor on his flagship HMS Dublin. He became Local Representative of
- the British Commission (the government of the Provisional Cession) by
- out ranking Paulet. His intention was to end the occupation. On July 31,
- he handed the islands back to King Kamehameha III who said the words Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina
- i ka Pono in a speech during a ceremony to mark his restoration.
- Roughly translated from the Hawaiian language it means "The life of the land is
- perpetuated in righteousness" and has become the state motto of Hawaii,
- incorporated into the Seal of Hawaii.
- lawyer, politician, and businessman born and raised in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. The grandson of two of the
- first Christian missionaries to Hawaiʻi, Thurston
- played a prominent role in the overthrow
- of the Hawaiian Kingdom that replaced Queen
- Liliʻuokalani with the Republic of Hawaii, dominated by American interests. He
- published the Pacific Commercial Advertiser (forerunner of the
- present-day Honolulu Advertiser), and owned
- other enterprises. From 1906 to 1916 he and friends lobbied with
- national politicians to create a National Park to preserve the Hawaiian
- July 1887 Thurston authored what is called the "Bayonet Constitution"
- because it was imposed under threat by the Honolulu Rifle Company
- militia. It stripped the monarch King Kalākaua of all executive power,
- and Thurston became the powerful Interior Minister. Voting rights and
- membership of the legislature were based on property ownership,
- resulting in effective control by wealthy Americans and Europeans. In
- 1892 he led the Annexation Club, later adopting the more dramatic title Committee of Safety, which
- planned for making Hawaii a territory of the United
- fourth Governor of Hawaiʻi from 1986 to 1994. He was
- the first American of Native Hawaiian descent to be elected
- to the office from any state of the United
- States. After his tenure in the governor's office, Waiheʻe
- became a nationally prominent attorney
- and lobbyist.
- nicknamed the Iron Duke of Hawaiʻi, was a
- native Hawaiian revolutionary soldier
- and politician. He led uprisings against both the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kalākaua and the Republic of Hawaii under Sanford Dole, what are now known
- as the Wilcox rebellions. He was later elected
- the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaii.
Myth of the noble savage
- "noble savage" originally expressed the concept of the natural
- man, unencumbered by either civilization
- or divine
- revelation. Although the phrase noble savage first appeared
- in the seventeenth century in Dryden's
- heroic play, The Conquest of Granada (1672), it became
- identified with the idealized picture of "nature's gentleman", which was
- an aspect of eighteenth-century sentimentalism.
The European and Polynesian worlds differed in major ways-economic organization,social and political organization, and cultural and environmentalvaluation. In their moral relationships and in their appreciation of the individualand the collective, these societies were worlds apart. It is thesedifferences we must clarify before we can determine the source of culturalperceptions or judge their effects
those material means essential to the survivalof the individual or group are either actively held in common or, what isequivalent, constitute readily accessible economic goods. "
life and sovereignty, or the mana to control the heavens and earth, would give life tothe Hawaiian people, and they would be preserved by their 40,000 Akua.
the ancient Hale Naua society to fosterthe study and collection ofHawaiian traditions.
Hui Aloha ʻĀina
one of the organizations that formed a coalition to oppose the treaty of annexation. this coalition represented a majority of Kanaka Maoli