med surge

  1. dehydration
    when checking pulse (Low Pulse)

    orthostatic hypostension
  2. hyperkalemia causes arrhythmias
    irregular heart rate 
  3. infection elevates temperature
  4. changes in level of consciousness may be due to changes in electrolytes and fluid balance
    • confusion
    • lethargy
  5. 1)Pallor may be due to anemia.

    2) scratching from dry skin, pruitus may lead to excoriations.
  6. 1)ab find:skin pallor, color, yellow, grey cast 2)dry skin
    when assessing: skin, hair, nail
  7. dehydration = oliguria
    thrombocytopenia = bruising
    abnormal finding: skin turgor

    when assessing: skin, hair, nail
  8. causes:nailbeds turn white with renal failure
    cap refill may result from poor blood flow to the extremeites or anemia
    abnormal finding distal portion of nail bedscapillary refill < 3 seconds

    when assessing: skin, hair, nail
  9. causes: may precede glomerulonephritis(kidney disease -helps filter waste and fluids from the blood) symptom blood in urine rust dark
    abnormal finding impetigo a streptococcal infection of the skin

    when assessing: skin, hair, nail
  10. retinitis pigmentosa may accompany hereditary nephritis(inflamation of nephron in kidney
     blurred vision
  11. causes: retinal changes in blood vessels results from prolonged hypertention or diabetes
    • retinal arteriosclerotic changes:
    •  eyes
  12. causes may be: anemia
    conjunctival pallor

  13.  1)causes: high frequency deafness may be  hereditary nephropathies

    2)acute glomerulonephritis may be pharyngitis or strep infection
    • 1) deafness, 
    • 2)strep throat
    causes: renal diseasel can result from alterations of sodium and renal secretions of vasoconstrictors
    • hypertention
    • cardiovascular
  15. causes:may occure with uremia
    friction rub

  16. causes: occurs from hypotention increased fluid volume
    • ab find: cardiac enlargement of the left ventricle
    • cardiovascular
  17. causes: decreased serum albumin
    • ab find: edema 
    • cardiovascular
  18. casues:fluid volume overload
    • ab find:SOB, tachypenea, rales
    • respiratory
  19. causes: metabolic acidosis occurs early in renal disease and casues kussmauls respirations
    • ab finding: acid base disturbanceskussmauls respirations
    • respiratory
  20. causes: decreased erythropoetin producution in kidney
    all blood cells are defective in renal disease
    abnormal find; anemia, bruising, bleeding tendencies

  21. causes: nausea and changes in taste may lead to diminished appetite
    ab find : weight changes / malnutrition

  22. casues: metabolic and hormonal changes in renal disease lead to GI upset, malnutrition and decreased nutrient intake
    ab finding: gastroparesis-gastritis

  23. casue: urea buildup
    ab find: metallic taste/ foul urine odor to breath

  24. causes: alterations in elimination occur
    ab find: constipation/diarrhea

  25. - Cause:lose concentrating ability
    • nocturia
    • genitourinary
  26. cause: UTI or interstitial cystitis
    ab find: dysuria

  27. cause: < 100 ml urine in 24 hr in acute renal disease, end stage,or bilateral ureteral obstruction

  28. ab find: oliguria

    cause: urine output is 100-400 ml in 24 hr severe dehydration,shock, transfusion reaction, end stage renal failure
    oliguria - genitourinary
  29. casue: blood in urine may indicate UTI, irritation, obstruction or cancer
    ab find: hematuria 

  30. causes: imbalance of potassium, magnesium, calcium
    ab fin: dysrythimia
  31. : cause chronic anemia
    ab find:angina chest pain
  32. cause: increased fluid volume
     ab find: distended neck veins (pericardial)
  33. increased levels of altered fluid balance, urea, creatine, amonia levels and parathyroid hormone may interfere with nerve function and contribute to neuropathies
    • diminished deep tendon reflexes
    • hyperesthesia
    • paresthesia
  34. waste products that build up in the blood
  35. presence of crystals on the skin
    uremic frost
  36. normal ph of urine

    amount of urine in 24hrs
     normal ph 4.6 to 8.0

    amount 24 hr 1-2 liters
  37.  formed by liver cells when excess amino acids are metabolized used for energy
  38. metabolismm of creatine phosphate energy source in muscle
  39. breakdown of DNA /RNA
    uric acid
  40. measure of dissolved material in urine
    specific gravity  = 1.002 to 1.035

    • distilled water is 1.000
    • higher the SG more dissolved material is present
  41. structural and functional unit of the kidney. urine is formed in the approx 1 million nephrons in each kidney
  42. nephr/o    ren/o
  43. prevents backflow of urine .
    carries urine from the kidney to urinary bladder
    ureters  - ureter/0
  44. temperary storage of urine and its elimination
    urinary bladder  cyst/o vesic/o
  45. carries urine from the bladder to exterior (outside)
  46. occurs with diabetes, diabetes insipidus, chronic renal failure
  47. prostate problems
    interrupted urine stream , dribbling, unrine retention
  48. urilogical disorder or neurologic disorder
  49. UTI
    • Cloudy urine
    • foul odor
  50. occurs with infection, foreign body in urinary tract, urethritis, renal colic or stones
    perineal pain
  51. renal disease inhibits kidney ability to break down insulin
  52. ab norm: dark amber urine = dehydration
    yellow brown to green urine=excessive bilir.
    dark smoky= hematuria
    orange red or orange brown=pyridium(phenazopyridine)
    cloudiness = infection
    nearly colorless = lg fluid intake, renal disease, or diabetes
    color of urine

    normal = yellow or amber
  53. abnorm urinalysis results : w/infection foul smell

    in diabetic ketoacidosis urine is fruity odor
    odor of urine
  54. ph below 4.6 in urine
    metabolic and respiratory acidosis
  55.  when urine has been standing or with infection because bacteria decompose urea to form ammonia
    ph above 8.0 in urine is seen
  56. low specific gravity indicates excessive fluid intake  or diabetes insipdus
    specific gravity below 1.002
Card Set
med surge
module 6&7