B1.3.1 Drugs

  1. What are the important properties of a good new medicine?
    Effective, safe, stable, successfully absorbed and excreted from our bodies
  2. Why was thalidomide prescribed to pregnant women?
    To help stop morning sickness
  3. Testing a new medicine costs a lot of money and can take up to 12 years. State a flow chart to show the main stages in testing new drugs
    Drugs are tested on human cells and tissues in the lab-->the drug is tested on a live animal-->the drug is tested on human voluteers in a clinical trial
  4. Why is an active drug often used as the control in a clinical trial instead of a sugar pill placebo which does nothing?
    If there is already a drug which works reasonably well against a disease, it would be unethical not to give that to a patient. It also allows us to compare how good the new drug is compared to existing drugs. It can only be done if there is already an active drug available.
  5. What were the fl aws in the original development of thalidomide?
    There was a lower standard of testing in those days. Extensive testing on pregnant animals was not carried Summary answersout. It wasn’t developed as a drug for morning sickness, but it turned out to have a benefi cial effect and it was assumed that it would be safe
  6. Why do you think that the World Health Organisation has stopped the use of thalidomide to treat leprosy but the drug is still being used in the developed world to treat certain rare conditions?
    When treating leprosy it was still causing complications for patients that were pregnant. Thalidomide is still used for rare diseases for which there is no other effective treatment. Its use in those countries is carefully controlled and it is never given to pregnant women
  7. What are statins?
    Prescribed medical drugs that reduce the levels of cholesterol in the blood and lower the risk of heart and circulatory disease
  8. Explain why is it unwise to think that non-prescribed drugs cannot cause harmful side effects
    Because if natural remedies work, they contain chemicals that are drugs, and these can cause problems with sideeffects like any other drug. Natural remedies that do not actually have any chemicals that can help you can still contain chemicals that can be harmful – natural does not mean harmless
  9. What do we mean by ‘indigenous peoples’?
    People who have traditionally inhabited a region since ancient times
  10. Give an example of one drug which is legal and one which is illegal in the UK
    Alcohol and tobacco are legal, but cocaine and heroin are not
  11. What do we mean by ‘addiction’?
    ‘Addiction’ means that you cannot function properly without a drug and suffer withdrawal symptoms if you are without it
  12. Why do people often need more and more of a drug?
    They need more and more to get the same effect
  13. What happens if you stop taking a drug when you are addicted to it?
    You suffer withdrawal symptoms/feel ill
  14. Why do people take drugs?
    As medicines or for pleasure makes them feel good, feel they can cope with problems, fi t in with the crowd
  15. Explain some of the problems linked with using cannabis, cocaine and heroin
    Addiction, health problems from drug or lifestyle needed to fund drug, risk of hepatitis and HIV/Aids from lifestyle, etc.
  16. Why do you think young people continue to take these drugs when they are well aware of the dangers?
    Peer pressure, image, addiction
  17. What drug is in a can of cola?
  18. Why do legal drugs cause many more health problems than illegal drugs?
    Because many more people take (and abuse) legal drugs
  19. What diseases are helped by the chemicals in cannabis?
    Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy
  20. How much does using cannabis before you are 15 appear to increase your risk of developing serious mental illness?
    4 times
  21. What is meant by a ‘gateway’ drug?
    A drug which makes it easier for an individual to begin taking ‘harder’ more damaging drugs through contact with people dealing with illegal drugs
  22. Why is cannabis considered a gateway drug?
    Because cannabis is seen as a soft drug (which is relatively harmless) and a lot of young people want to smoke it. Because it is illegal to buy cannabis, it puts them in contact with dealers who may well try to introduce them to more expensive, harder drugs which will make the dealer a bigger profi t and that are more powerfully addictive
  23. What are anabolic steroids and why do athletes use them?
    Anabolic steroids are drugs which help athletes to build extra muscle mass – athletes use them to get extra strength and extra muscles for running, bodybuilding
  24. Why do athletes use drugs which could cause them harm?
    They are so keen to win at all costs that they feel the benefi ts outweigh the risks and they assume that the drugs will not affect them negatively
  25. Suggest the advantages and disadvantages to an athlete of using banned performance-enhancing drugs to help win a competition
    • Advantages: the athlete will compete better (run faster and have more stamina), be able to lift heavier weights, etc., and build muscles more easily. They mean the athlete will have to do less work to perform well, which is likely to bring the financial benefits of success, e.g. sponsorship
    • Disadvantages: the health risks, the risk of being found out and disqualifi ed, the possible loss of personal satisfaction in achievement
  26. It has been suggested that athletes be allowed to use any drugs to improve their performance. Suggest arguments for and against this proposal
    • For: For example, it removes the need to spend large amounts of time and money trying to catch people cheating; it puts all athletes on a level playing fi eld because they can all use performance-enhancing drugs if they want to
    • Against: For example, the health risks to athletes, it means wealthy individual athletes or wealthy countries would be able to afford the latest developments and others wouldn’t, questionable value of artifi cially-enhanced performance.
  27. What is a drug?
    A substance that alters chemical reactions in the body
  28. Why would a patient be prescribed statins?
    To lower the risk of heart and circulatory disease
  29. What is a placebo? Why are placebos often used in drug trial?
    A placebo is a substance that's like the real drug bu doesn't do anything (e.g. a sugar pill instead of a drug). Using a placebo allows the doctors to see the actual difference the drug makes
  30. Name 2 illegal recreational drugs
    Heroin, cannibus
  31. Name 1 illegal drug to which people may become addicted
  32. Alcohol affects the nervous system, slowing down the body's reactions. Suggest why drinking increases the risk of having a car accident
    Drinking alcohol slows reaction, so a driver might not react to problem quickly enough to stop an accident happening
  33. Other then drink-related drving accidents, give 2 ways in which excessive alcohol consumption has a negative effect on society
    Increased crime, cost to NHS
  34. Apart from being banned from a competition, give 1 reason why an athlete might choose not to take steroids
    Taking steriods can have negative health effects or the competitor may not want to have an unfair advantage over the other competitors
  35. Describe the effect thalidomide had on fetuses
    It stunted the growth on fetuses' arms and legs
  36. Name 1 disease that thalidomide is currently used in the treatment of
    Leprosy/some cancers
  37. Suggest why new drugs have to be tested on healthy volunteers
    To make sure that it doesn't have any harmful side effects when the body is working normally
  38. Explain what is meant by a double-blind clinical test, including the reason why drug trials are often carried out in this way
    A double-blind clinical trial means that neither the patient nor the doctor knows which patients have been given the drug and which the placebo until all the results have been gathered. This so the doctors monitoring the patients and analysing the results aren't subconsciously influenced by their knowledge
  39. What do stimulants do?
    Increase heart rate
  40. What do anabolic steriods do?
    Increase muscle size
  41. Name a negative health effect of a performance-enhancing drug
    Steroids can cause high blood pressure
  42. Drugs can be 3 different things...
    Medicinal, recreational or performance-enhancing
  43. With medical drugs, why do some have to be prescribed?
    Because they can be dangerous if misused
  44. Define recreational drugs
    Recreational drugs are used for fun
  45. Define medicinal drug
    Medicinal drugs are medically useful, like antibiotics
  46. Define performance-enhancing drugs
    They can improve a person's performance in sport, however some are banned by law, some are prescription only but all are banned by sporting bodies
  47. What are the arguments for performance-enhancing drugs?
    • Athletes have the right to make their own decisions about whether taking drugs is worth it or not
    • Drug-free sport isn't really fair anyway - different athletes have access to different sporting facilities, coaches, equipment etc.
  48. What are the arguments against performance-enhancing drugs?
    • It's unfair if people gain an advantage by taking drugs, not just through training
    • Athletes may not be fully informed of the serious health risks of the drugs they take
  49. What does the 1st stage of drug testing involve?
    Drugs are tested on human cells, tissues or organs in the lab. However, you can't use human cells/tissues/organs to test drugs that affect multiple/whole body systems e.g/ testing a drug for blood pressure must be done on a whole animal because it has an intact circulatory system
  50. What does the 2nd stage of drug testing involve?
    Drugs are tested on live animals if it passes the 1st test. This is to see whether the drugs works, to find out about its toxicity and the best dosage. The law in Britain states that new drugs must be tested on 2 live mammals
  51. What does the 3rd stage of drug testing involve?
    If it passes all other tests, it's tested on human volunteers in a clinical trial. First, it's tested on healthy volunteers to make sure that it doesn't have any harmful effects when the body is working normally. At the start of the trial, a low dose is given which is gradually increased. The drugs are then tested on people suffering the illness if the results from testing healthy volunteers are good. The optimum dose is found - most effective and least side effects. To test whether it works, double-blind trials are done
  52. What was thalidomide originally intended as?
    A sleeping pill, but was later found to be effective relieving morning sickness - but hadn't been tested, so babies were born with abnormalties as they didn't realise it would affect child
  53. What diseases does smoking cause?
    Disease of the heart, blood vessels and lungs. Tobacco smoke causes cancer. Nicotine makes it hard to stop smoking
  54. What impact does alcohol have on the body?
    It affects nervous system and slows down the body's reactions, excessive alcohol can lead to impaired judgement, poor coordination and unconsciousness. It can also damage liver and brain. Alcohol is addictive
  55. Give 1 example of a soft drug
  56. What can heroin, ecstasy and cannibus all cause?
    Heart and circulatory problems
Card Set
B1.3.1 Drugs
Covers the drugs topic in Biology GCSE