Career part 2

  1. Describe the Value System of the Gelatt Model
    Concerned wtih one's relative preference regarding outcomes
  2. Define Actuarial approach
    AKA=Trait and Factor

    • Matches worker and work environment. Assumption that there is one best career
    • *Parsons
    • *Edmund Griffith Williamson
  3. Define differential validity
    Selection process (test) is valid for one group but not for another
  4. Define career couneling term leisure
    The time clients have away from work which is not being utilized for obligations

    avocation=leisure activity for pleasure not money
  5. Define Career
    Total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
  6. Difference between  Guidance and Career Counseling
    Guidance= Developmental and educational process within a school

    Career Counselin=Viewed as a therapeutic service for adults performed outside an educational setting.
  7. Describe Victor Vroom's motivation and management expectancy theory
    An employees performance is influenced by Valence (work provides rewards, $money, satisfaction, promotion)

    Expectancy : what does the  the person feel he or she is capable of and Instrumentality (will the manager actually give promised reward)
  8. Define Differentiation in Holland's theory
    Indiviudual profile has significant high and low scores in categories (RIASEC)
  9. Define Consistency in Holland's theory
    Adjacent personality are more logically alik

    • e.g. RIASEC
    • RI=consisten
    • RS=Not consistent
  10. This theorist beleived career choice is an expression of personality. Also the following test are based on this theorist work:
    SDS (Self Directed Search)
    Vocational preference Inventory
    Strong Interest Inventory
    Career Assessment Inventory
    John Holland
  11. Define displaced homemaker
    Client who has stayed home to raise children and is now seeking employment (also widower and divorce)
  12. Define dislocated worker
    Person who loses his/her job because a company downsizes or relocates
  13. What is the self directed search (SDS)
    • Based on Holland's work
    • Yields scores on 6 types
    • Self administered
    • Self interpreted
    • Reveals 3 highest Holland Types
  14. What is the notion of the hidden job market
    Over 76% of jobs are not advertised
  15. Define Lifestyle
    • Overall balance of work, leisure, family, and social activities
    • (avocational=leisure)
  16. Define Recency Effect
    Occurs when a rater's judgement of an employe reflects his/her most recent performance
  17. SIGI Plus, Choices, and Discover are:
    Computer assisted career systems (CACG)
  18. Define Bandura's Self Efficacy Theory
    One's belief or expectation of being successful in an occupation causes  the individual to gravitate toward that particular application.
  19. Define "Underemployment"
    Occurs when a worker is engaged in a position "below" their skill level
  20. What is the "OOH"
    Occupational Outlook Handbook. Published by U.S. Dept. of Labor.  Available via O'Net website. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  21. Describe Nathan Azrin's "Job Club"
    Behaviorist group in which members share job leads and discuss or role-play specific behaviors necessary for job acquisition
  22. What is the accident theory?
    Chance factors influence one's career
  23. Krumboltz's model is what type of theory?
    Behavioristic model of career development (learing)
  24. John Krumboltz's social learning approach to career choice is based on work of....
    Albert Bandura
  25. What is the career rainbow?
    Super's graphic display of the roles unfolding over the lifespan.

    • Student-retirement
    • Employee-civic duties
    • Pensioner-avocations, family roles
  26. This theorist, the most popular career developmental theorist emphasizes self-concept
    Donald Super
  27. These theorist view career choice as an ongoing, longitudinal, process rather thatn a single decision
    Developmental career theorists
  28. Holland's Personality Hexagaon
    • Realistic________________Investigative
    • Convetional_____________Artistic
    • Enterprising______________Social

  29. List John Holland's 6 personality types
    • A-Artistic(shows conformity, self expression)
    • S-Social (interpersonal skills and feelings)
    • R-Realistic(likes machines)
    • I-Investigative (Thinking, engineers/scientist)
    • C-Conventional (rules, accountants)
    • E-Enterprising (values power, states)
    • (SDS-Self-directed search, measures this)
  30. The most popular approach to career choice is John Holland's work which has 4 assumptions
    • 1. There are 6 basic personality types
    • 2. Most work environments correspond to 6 personality types
    • 3. People search out an agreeable environment to express personality
    • 4. Individuals behavior is determined by interaction at personality and environment
  31. Define Job, occupation, and career
    • Job: Given position in organization
    • occupation: broader, referring to similar jobs occupied by people in different settings (psychotherapist)
    • career: Broadest category. Person's lifetime position plus leisure.
  32. Roes's theory relies on Maslow's hierarchy of need in that?
    Lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs.

    Job=meets most urgent needs
  33. Who wrote the 1909 book entitled "choosing a vocation?"
    Frank Parson, the father of Vocational Guidance
  34. What does the trait and factor theory assume
    via psychological testing one's personality could be matched  to an occupation which stresses those personality traits. There is one single best career for a person.
  35. Define Adverse impact as guided by EEOC guidelines
    80%, 4/5ths rule

    Hiring of minorities is divided by figure for non minorities. If quotient is less than 80%, adverse impact is evident.

    60 black employees, 80 white =60/80=75% adverse
  36. Define Leisure
    Time client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations
  37. Define Career
    Total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
  38. Explain the "changing view of work"
    In the past, work was veiwed as drudgery, while today it is seen as a vehicle to express our identity, self esteem, and status.
  39. What is the difference between guidance and career counseling
    Guidance is seen as a developmental & educational process within a school while career counseling is viewed as therapeutic service for adults performed outside and educational setting.
  40. Define pervasive indecisiveness
    Person has a lifelong pattern of severe anxiety related to decision making
  41. Explain Displaced Home Maker
    Woman with children who was a homemaker but is currently in need of work to support her family- Reentry woman.
  42. Explain the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon
    Suggest that woman are limited in terms of how they can advance in teh world of work
  43. Describe H.B. Gelatt's Decision making process, also called Positive Uncertainty or 2 by 4 process.
    • 2 attitudes:
    • 1. accept past, present and future as uncertain
    • 2. Be postive about uncertainty

    • 4 factors
    • 1. What  you want
    • 2. What you know
    • 3. What you believe
    • 4. What you do
  44. Describe Mark Savicka's post modern career counseling approach called social constructionism
    Counselor is not expert, but rather active agent in helping client make sense of their life and work.

    * stories and meanings provided by clients (narrative approach)
  45. What is the constructivist approach to counseling?
    Suggest individuals construct their own reality or truth. They extract meaning from their present situation.
  46. Define self efficacy as it relates to career couseling
    Based on Bandura's social learning theory

    • Belief that you can perform some task can be strengthened by
    • - accomplishment
    • - vicarious learning
    • -social persuasion
    • -physiological states/reactions
  47. Describe the sequential procedure of Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) presented by Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, and Lenz
    • CASVE
    • Communication
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • Valuing
    • Execution
  48. The career thory, a developmental model, parallelled Erickson's 8 psychosocial stages adn talked heavily of ego development.
    Tiedeman's Decision Making Model

    • 2 phases:
    • Anticipation/pre-occupation
    • Implementation/Adjustment
  49. This theorist is classified as a needs-based career theorist, believing careers are chosen to meet needs
    Anne Roe and Robert Hoppock
  50. These developmental theorist posed 3 periods of occupational choice, which could be a life long process
    Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, Herma

    • 3 periods:
    • -Fantasy
    • -Tentative
    • -Realistic
  51. John Krumboltz concept of planned happenstance
    Uplanned & chance events will influence an individuals career development. We should expect this and take advantage of it.
  52. Krumboltz's learning theory of career counseling list the following factors as involved in career decision making:
    • Genetics
    • Environmental conditions
    • Learning(reinforcement, learning experiences)
    • Skills acquired(problem solving, work habits, emotional response)
  53. Whose theory is called circumscription and compromise
    Linda Gottfriedson (Developmental)

    * Vocation self concept

    • Circumscribe=narrow down occupations
    • Compromise=opt out of unavailable or inappropriate occupations.
  54. Define Angruence Holland's theory
    Individuals type and Environment type are the same
  55. What "Archway Model" represents the components of Self-Concept?
    Donald Super
  56. Which theorist feels that to make an accurate career decision you must know your personal needs and then find job that meets high % of those needs
    Robert Hoppock
  57. What test assumes a person who is interested in a given subject will experience satisfaction in a job in whic those working in occupation have similar interest
    Strong Interest Inventory (SCII)

    *Measures interest Not ability.
  58. Describe Guidance Associations
    • 1913: National Vocational Guidance Associations
    • 1952: American Personnel & Guidance Associations
    • 1983: American Associations for Couneling and Development
  59. Define Compensatory effect
    A worker compensates or makes up for things he/she can't do on teh job.
  60. Define Circumscription
    People restrict choices
  61. What developmental theorist theory of career focuses on circumscriptive and compromise
    Linda Gottfriedson
  62. Describe the decision system of the Gelatt Model
    Provides rules and criteria for evaluating the outcome
  63. Describe Gelatt Models predictive system
    Concerned with probable alternatives, actions, and possibilities.
  64. Describe Harry B. Gellatt's Decision Model
    • Information is the fuel of the decision and info can be organized into 3 systems:
    •  - Predictive
    • - Value
    • - Decision
  65. What is attainment theory?
    Posits that child will eventually secure a job commensurate with his/her family status
  66. What is the human capital theory?
    Purports that individuals secure training & education to get the best possible income.
  67. Name 2 Behavioral techniques used in career counseling
    RJP=Realistic Job Preview

    Guided Imagery= Client imagins a day working in the job
  68. David Tiedeman and Robert O'hara's Decision Making Theory describes decision making as what 2 steps
    • - Anticipation Stage= imagine himself in a given career
    • - Implementation = also called accomodator or induction.  Reality testing regarding his/her expectations concerning occupation

    * Power to choose among various career options
  69. This researchers work is in teh field of "career maturity" also called " Vocational maturity"
    John Crites
  70. Describe the 1972 changes Ginzberg et al made to theory
    • - choosing career does not end @ age 20 to adulthood
    • - career choices are made throughout the life span
    • - career choice is reversible
  71. Describe Super's 5 Life stages
    • Growth (0-14)
    • Exploration (15-24)
    • Establishment (24-44)
    • Maintenance (44-64)
    • Decline (65+): Later renamed disengagement.
  72. Ginzburge et al defined 3 stages of career development
    Fantasy (impulses) through age 11

    Tentative (ages 11-17) interest and abilities are examined

    Realistic (age 17-early 20's) Choice is made by weighing abilities and needs and making a compromise
  73. Who are the pioneer developmental theorist?
    Ginzberg, Ginzburg, Axelrad, Herma (1951)
  74. These career counseling theorist are classified as personality theorist
    Brill, Holland, Roe, Hoppock
  75. The psychoanalytic career theorist emphasized sublimation as an ego defense mechanism
    A.A. Brill

    Sublimation= occurs when individual expresses an unacceptable need in a socially acceptable manner.
  76. This theorist felt that career choices could be used to solve unconscious conflicts
    Edwin Bardin and Anne Roe
  77. According to Roe, Career Choice is influenced by:
    Genetics, Parent-child interaction, Unconscious motivators, Current needs, Interest (people things), Education, Intelligence
Card Set
Career part 2
Career part 3