Describe the Value System of the Gelatt Model
Concerned wtih one's relative preference regarding outcomes
Define Actuarial approach
AKA=Trait and Factor
- Matches worker and work environment. Assumption that there is one best career
- *Edmund Griffith Williamson
Define differential validity
Selection process (test) is valid for one group but not for another
Define career couneling term leisure
The time clients have away from work which is not being utilized for obligations
avocation=leisure activity for pleasure not money
Total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
Difference between Guidance and Career Counseling
Guidance= Developmental and educational process within a school
Career Counselin=Viewed as a therapeutic service for adults performed outside an educational setting.
Describe Victor Vroom's motivation and management expectancy theory
An employees performance is influenced by Valence (work provides rewards, $money, satisfaction, promotion)
Expectancy : what does the the person feel he or she is capable of and Instrumentality (will the manager actually give promised reward)
Define Differentiation in Holland's theory
Indiviudual profile has significant high and low scores in categories (RIASEC)
Define Consistency in Holland's theory
Adjacent personality are more logically alik
- e.g. RIASEC
- RS=Not consistent
This theorist beleived career choice is an expression of personality. Also the following test are based on this theorist work:
SDS (Self Directed Search)
Vocational preference Inventory
Strong Interest Inventory
Career Assessment Inventory
Define displaced homemaker
Client who has stayed home to raise children and is now seeking employment (also widower and divorce)
Define dislocated worker
Person who loses his/her job because a company downsizes or relocates
What is the self directed search (SDS)
- Based on Holland's work
- Yields scores on 6 types
- Self administered
- Self interpreted
- Reveals 3 highest Holland Types
What is the notion of the hidden job market
Over 76% of jobs are not advertised
- Overall balance of work, leisure, family, and social activities
Define Recency Effect
Occurs when a rater's judgement of an employe reflects his/her most recent performance
SIGI Plus, Choices, and Discover are:
Computer assisted career systems (CACG)
Define Bandura's Self Efficacy Theory
One's belief or expectation of being successful in an occupation causes the individual to gravitate toward that particular application.
Occurs when a worker is engaged in a position "below" their skill level
What is the "OOH"
Occupational Outlook Handbook. Published by U.S. Dept. of Labor. Available via O'Net website. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Describe Nathan Azrin's "Job Club"
Behaviorist group in which members share job leads and discuss or role-play specific behaviors necessary for job acquisition
What is the accident theory?
Chance factors influence one's career
Krumboltz's model is what type of theory?
Behavioristic model of career development (learing)
John Krumboltz's social learning approach to career choice is based on work of....
What is the career rainbow?
Super's graphic display of the roles unfolding over the lifespan.
- Employee-civic duties
- Pensioner-avocations, family roles
This theorist, the most popular career developmental theorist emphasizes self-concept
These theorist view career choice as an ongoing, longitudinal, process rather thatn a single decision
Developmental career theorists
Holland's Personality Hexagaon
List John Holland's 6 personality types
- A-Artistic(shows conformity, self expression)
- S-Social (interpersonal skills and feelings)
- R-Realistic(likes machines)
- I-Investigative (Thinking, engineers/scientist)
- C-Conventional (rules, accountants)
- E-Enterprising (values power, states)
- (SDS-Self-directed search, measures this)
The most popular approach to career choice is John Holland's work which has 4 assumptions
- 1. There are 6 basic personality types
- 2. Most work environments correspond to 6 personality types
- 3. People search out an agreeable environment to express personality
- 4. Individuals behavior is determined by interaction at personality and environment
Define Job, occupation, and career
- Job: Given position in organization
- occupation: broader, referring to similar jobs occupied by people in different settings (psychotherapist)
- career: Broadest category. Person's lifetime position plus leisure.
Roes's theory relies on Maslow's hierarchy of need in that?
Lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs.
Job=meets most urgent needs
Who wrote the 1909 book entitled "choosing a vocation?"
Frank Parson, the father of Vocational Guidance
What does the trait and factor theory assume
via psychological testing one's personality could be matched to an occupation which stresses those personality traits. There is one single best career for a person.
Define Adverse impact as guided by EEOC guidelines
80%, 4/5ths rule
Hiring of minorities is divided by figure for non minorities. If quotient is less than 80%, adverse impact is evident.
60 black employees, 80 white =60/80=75% adverse
Time client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations
Total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
Explain the "changing view of work"
In the past, work was veiwed as drudgery, while today it is seen as a vehicle to express our identity, self esteem, and status.
What is the difference between guidance and career counseling
Guidance is seen as a developmental & educational process within a school while career counseling is viewed as therapeutic service for adults performed outside and educational setting.
Define pervasive indecisiveness
Person has a lifelong pattern of severe anxiety related to decision making
Explain Displaced Home Maker
Woman with children who was a homemaker but is currently in need of work to support her family- Reentry woman.
Explain the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon
Suggest that woman are limited in terms of how they can advance in teh world of work
Describe H.B. Gelatt's Decision making process, also called Positive Uncertainty or 2 by 4 process.
- 2 attitudes:1. accept past, present and future as uncertain
- 2. Be postive about uncertainty
- 4 factors1. What you want
- 2. What you know
- 3. What you believe
- 4. What you do
Describe Mark Savicka's post modern career counseling approach called social constructionism
Counselor is not expert, but rather active agent in helping client make sense of their life and work.
* stories and meanings provided by clients (narrative approach)
What is the constructivist approach to counseling?
Suggest individuals construct their own reality or truth. They extract meaning from their present situation.
Define self efficacy as it relates to career couseling
Based on Bandura's social learning theory
- Belief that you can perform some task can be strengthened by
- - accomplishment
- - vicarious learning
- -social persuasion
- -physiological states/reactions
Describe the sequential procedure of Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) presented by Sampson, Reardon, Peterson, and Lenz
The career thory, a developmental model, parallelled Erickson's 8 psychosocial stages adn talked heavily of ego development.
Tiedeman's Decision Making Model
- 2 phases:
This theorist is classified as a needs-based career theorist, believing careers are chosen to meet needs
Anne Roe and Robert Hoppock
These developmental theorist posed 3 periods of occupational choice, which could be a life long process
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, Herma
- 3 periods:
John Krumboltz concept of planned happenstance
Uplanned & chance events will influence an individuals career development. We should expect this and take advantage of it.
Krumboltz's learning theory of career counseling list the following factors as involved in career decision making:
- Environmental conditions
- Learning(reinforcement, learning experiences)
- Skills acquired(problem solving, work habits, emotional response)
Whose theory is called circumscription and compromise
Linda Gottfriedson (Developmental)
* Vocation self concept
- Circumscribe=narrow down occupations
- Compromise=opt out of unavailable or inappropriate occupations.
Define Angruence Holland's theory
Individuals type and Environment type are the same
What "Archway Model" represents the components of Self-Concept?
Which theorist feels that to make an accurate career decision you must know your personal needs and then find job that meets high % of those needs
What test assumes a person who is interested in a given subject will experience satisfaction in a job in whic those working in occupation have similar interest
Strong Interest Inventory (SCII)
*Measures interest Not ability.
Describe Guidance Associations
- 1913: National Vocational Guidance Associations
- 1952: American Personnel & Guidance Associations
- 1983: American Associations for Couneling and Development
Define Compensatory effect
A worker compensates or makes up for things he/she can't do on teh job.
People restrict choices
What developmental theorist theory of career focuses on circumscriptive and compromise
Describe the decision system of the Gelatt Model
Provides rules and criteria for evaluating the outcome
Describe Gelatt Models predictive system
Concerned with probable alternatives, actions, and possibilities.
Describe Harry B. Gellatt's Decision Model
- Information is the fuel of the decision and info can be organized into 3 systems:
- - Predictive
- - Value
- - Decision
What is attainment theory?
Posits that child will eventually secure a job commensurate with his/her family status
What is the human capital theory?
Purports that individuals secure training & education to get the best possible income.
Name 2 Behavioral techniques used in career counseling
RJP=Realistic Job Preview
Guided Imagery= Client imagins a day working in the job
David Tiedeman and Robert O'hara's Decision Making Theory describes decision making as what 2 steps
- - Anticipation Stage= imagine himself in a given career
- - Implementation = also called accomodator or induction. Reality testing regarding his/her expectations concerning occupation
* Power to choose among various career options
This researchers work is in teh field of "career maturity" also called " Vocational maturity"
Describe the 1972 changes Ginzberg et al made to theory
- - choosing career does not end @ age 20 to adulthood
- - career choices are made throughout the life span
- - career choice is reversible
Describe Super's 5 Life stages
- Growth (0-14)
- Exploration (15-24)
- Establishment (24-44)
- Maintenance (44-64)
- Decline (65+): Later renamed disengagement.
Ginzburge et al defined 3 stages of career development
Fantasy (impulses) through age 11
Tentative (ages 11-17) interest and abilities are examined
Realistic (age 17-early 20's) Choice is made by weighing abilities and needs and making a compromise
Who are the pioneer developmental theorist?
Ginzberg, Ginzburg, Axelrad, Herma (1951)
These career counseling theorist are classified as personality theorist
Brill, Holland, Roe, Hoppock
The psychoanalytic career theorist emphasized sublimation as an ego defense mechanism
Sublimation= occurs when individual expresses an unacceptable need in a socially acceptable manner.
This theorist felt that career choices could be used to solve unconscious conflicts
Edwin Bardin and Anne Roe
According to Roe, Career Choice is influenced by:
Genetics, Parent-child interaction, Unconscious motivators, Current needs, Interest (people things), Education, Intelligence