1. acids
    • taste sour
    • conduct electicity
    • turn ble litmus red
    • produce h ions arrhenious theory
  2. base
    • conduct electricity 
    • TURN RED LITMUS blue
    • feel slippery 
    • produce OH- ions
  3. arrhenious theory doesnt
    apply to basic properties of ions without OH ions
  4. bronsted lowry theory
    new way to describe acids and bases 
  5. an acid is a 
    proton doner
  6. a base is a 
    proton acceptor
  7. single arrow 
    indicates strond acid/base (ionizes quantitatively (completely))
  8. double arrow indicates 
    weak acid/ base ionization (incompletely forming a dynamic equilibrium)
  9. amphoteric/amphiprotic
    • in the bronsted lowry theory a substance capable of acting as an acid or base in different chemiccal reactions (a substance that may donate or accept a proton)
    • ex. baking soda HCO3
    • could become H2CO3 and OH
    • or CO3 and H3O
  10. conjugate acid base pair
    two substances whos formulas differe only by one H unit
  11. a competition for protons
    • when a strong acid reacts with water the transter of  protons is coplete in the forward direction and almost no transfer of protons occur via the reverse reaction (100% complete)
    • -high percent reaction 
    • -products are favoured
    • -low attraction ofr its proton and donates to base
  12. stronger acid 
    has weaker conjugate base
  13. weaker acid 
    stronger conjugate base 
  14. weak acids
    have lower % reaction ionization (reactants are favoured)
  15. strong base 
    strong attraction to protons
  16. autoionization of water
    water molecules react with each toher and produce OH and H3O

    reaction between 2 H20 molelcules producting a H3O ion and OH ion 
  17. ionization process
    where one proton is transferred from one to the other they dont dissociate
  18. ion product constant for water
    kw equilibruim constant for the ionization of water 1.0x10^-14
  19. [h] = [oh]
  20. weak acids
    acid that partially ionizes in solution but exists primarilly in thre form of molecules 
  21. examples of weak acids
    • natural acids (organic) 
    • and some inorganic are:
    • HF H2CO3
    • H2S
    • H3BO3
  22. weak bases
    • a base that has a weak attraction for protons 
    • le chaletlier OH shifts equilibruim left in iautoionization of water and HP is greater than 7
    • -proton acceptors
    • -reacts non quantitatively incomletely
    • -compound must possess an atom with a lone pair of valence electrons to accept H from water
  23. examples of weak bases
    NH3 and Na3PO4 
  24. the stronger the acid 
    the weaker the conjugate base and vice versa
  25. Ionization constants 
    • ka contstant for acids
    • kb constant for bases
    • kw constant for water

  26. polyprotic acids
    • an acid with more than one ionizable acidic proton
    • ionize in steps
    • release one H at a time
    • each ionization reaction has its own constant Ka1 Ka2... etc
  27. salt 
    • solit 
    • anion+cat ion in crystalline lattice
    • dissoiate into indicidual hydrated ions
  28. neutral salt
    • salts that consist of cations of strong bases and anions of strong acids have no effect on PH
    • nacl --> na + cl (both ions dont hydrolize therefore it is neutral)
  29. hydrolysis
    a reaction of an ion with water to produce an acidic or basic solution (H3O or OH)
  30. salts that form acidic solutions
    • cations that are conjugate acids of weak bases atct as weak acids and lower PH 
    • (NH4 andN2H5) 
    • NH4+H20 --> H3O +NH3
  31. group 1 and 2 
    • dont form acidic solutions except for Be
    • only high charged ions do for acidic solutions for example Al+3
  32. salts that form basic solutions
    • an anion of a weak acid is strong enough to affect the PH (conjugate base of weak acid)
    • ex Na C2H3O2 --> Na + C2H3O2
    • C2H3O2 +H20 --> HC2H3O2 + OH
  33. SALTS that act as acids and bases 
    • if the ka of the acid is > than kb of the base it will be acidic PH <7
    • Kb>Ka it will be basic PH >7
    • Kb=Ka it will be neutral PH =7
  34. titration
    the precise addition of a solution in a buret into a measured volume of a sample solution
  35. titrant
    the solution in a buret during a titration
  36. sample
     the solution being analyzed
  37. primary standard
    a chemical available in a pure and stable form for which an accurate concetnration can be prepared the solution is then used to determine precisely by means of titratrating the concentration of a titrant 
  38. equivalence point
    in a titration the measured quantity of titrant recorded at the point at which chemically equivalent amounts have reacted 
  39. end point 
    the point in a titration at which a sharp change in a measureable charateristic property occurs ex colour change in an indicator
  40. titrating a strong acid with a weak base 
    • ph at eq point is less than 7 
    • conjugate acid of weak base 
  41. stong base strong acid
    • ph at eq point is 7
    • autoionization of water
  42. strong base weak acid 
    • ph is greater than 7
    • conjugate base of weak acid 
  43. buffers 
    all ph curves witha a weak acid or weak base have a point where a buffering ation occurs 
  44. buffer definition
    a mixture of a conjugate acid base pair that maintains a nearly constant PH when diluted or when a strong acid or base is added and equal mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base 

    --half way to equivalence point
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