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  1. Sociology
    • Study of people, groups, institutions, human activities in terms of social behavior and social order within socity
    • Concerned about institutions in society such as religion, family, government, education, and leisure.
    • Influence of social institutions on the individual, the social behavior and human relations that occur within a group or an institution, and how they influence the individual, and the interrelationship between various institutions within society, such as sport, education, religion, and government
  2. Goals of Sport Sociology
    • —Factors underlying the creation and the organization of sports. 
    • Relationship between sport and other aspects of society.
    • Influence of sport and sport participation on individuals’ beliefs relative to equity, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, and other societal issues. 
    • —The social dynamics within the sport setting. 
    • —The influence of cultural, structural, and situational factors on the nature of sport and the sport experience. 
    • The social processes associated with sport. 
  3. What does a sport sociologist do
    • Studies the behavior of individuals and groups within the sport milieu. 
    • —Influence of social relationships, past social experiences, and the social setting of sport activities on the behavior of groups and individuals in sport. 
  4. What is SPORT 
    Sports are well-established, officially governed competitive activities in which participants are motivated by internal and external rewards.”
  5. Characteristics of Sport
    • What kind of activities can be classified as sport? 
    • —Under what circumstances can participation in activities be considered sport? 
    • —What characterizes the involvement of participants in sport? 
  6. Interscholastic Sports
    • —Sports contribution to educational goals. 
    • Arguments for and against interscholastic sports. 
    • Concerns: 
    • Overemphasis on winning 
    • Specialization at early age 
    • Restriction of opportunities for students 
    • Drug abuse 
    • Soaring cost 
    • Quality of leadership 
    • Losing sight of educational goals 
  7. Intercollegiate Sport Issues
    • —Educational Sport -vs.- “Big Business” 
    • Governance-NCAA, NAIA, NJCAA 

    • Pressure to Win 
    • May result in the abandonment of sportspersonship, character and social development. 

    • Academic Achievement of “Student-Athletes” 
    • Graduation rates 
    • —Exploitation of athletes 
    • Gambling 
    • —Retention of Coaches 
    • —Drug abuse 
    • Spiraling costs 
    • Media 
  8. Title IX of the Educational Amendment Act 1972 
    no person ... shall on the basis of sex, be excluded form participation in, be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal assistance.”
  9. Girls and Women in Sport
    • —Expansion of opportunities due to: 
    • increased visibility of women athlete role models 
    • fitness movement 
    • women’s movement 
    • legislation 

    • —Factors limiting participation: 
    • financial constraints 
    • societal constraints 
    • discrimination 
  10. Stacking
    •  players from certain racial or ethnic groups are disproportionately represented at certain positions. 
    • A reflection of stereotypical beliefs about racial and ethnic groups?
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