B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise

  1. What 7 food groups does a healthy diet consist of?
    Carbohydrates, fats, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and water
  2. Why is it important to eat carbohydrates as part of a balanced diet?
    Carbohydrates are an important source of energy
  3. Why is it important to eat fats as part of a balanced diet?
    They give you energy and provides you with insulation to keep you warm
  4. What is protein used for in the body?
    Growth, cell repair and cell replacement
  5. How does fibre help your body?
    Keeps everything running smoothly through your digestive system
  6. How do vitamins and minerals help your body?
    They keep your skin, bones, blood and everything else generally healthy
  7. Why do you need energy?
    To fuel the chemical reactions in the body that keep you alive
  8. What does malnourished mean?
    Having a diet that is unbalanced/badly out of balance
  9. What is metabolism?
    The chemical reactions in your body that keep you alive (occurs in cells)
  10. What is your metabolic rate?
    The speed in which chemical reactions in the body (cells) occur
  11. Will a person with a higher proportion of muscle to fat have a higher or lower metabolic rate?
  12. Will someone who is physically bigger have a higher or lower matabolic rate?
    Higher (the bigger you are, the more energy your body needs as you have more cells)
  13. Do men or women have a higher metabolic rate?
    Men (they're bigger and have a larger proportion of muscle)
  14. Why can exercise boost your metabolic rate?
    Exercising builds muscle (muscle requires more energy then fatty tissue)
  15. Can genetic factors effect metabolic rate?
    Yes (your basic metabolic rate may be inherited from parents)
  16. If you go somewhere very cold, will your metabolic rate go up or down?
    Up (to keep you warm... you would need lots of fat in your diet to supply the energy you need)
  17. How is your metabolic rate affected during exercise and after?
    It goes up during exercise and stays high for sometime afterwards
  18. Would a builder or a secretary need more energy?
    Builder (as they are more active)
  19. If you do less exercise, you're going to need......in your diet
    Less carbohydrates and less fat
  20. If you do more exercise, you're going to need......in your diet
    More carbohydrates and more fat
  21. Why do you need more carbohydrates and fat in your diet if you do more exercise?
    Exercise requires energy, which fat and carbohydrates provide
  22. Are malnourished people fat or thin?
    They can be either
  23. Excessive carbohhydrates and fat, can lead to...
  24. What percentage over the maximum recommended body mass is defined as obese
    20% or more
  25. What 4 factors can lead to obesity?
    Overeating, a lack of exercise, hormonal problems and a bad diet
  26. What 4 serious health problems can obesity lead to?
    Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), type 2 diabetes (inability to control blood sugar level), high blood pressure and heart disease.
  27. Obesity is a risk factor for some kinds of...
  28. What can too much saturated fat cause in your diet?
    Increased blood cholesterol level
  29. What can eating too much salt cause?
    High blood pressure and heart problems
  30. What are the common effects of malnutrition in the diet?
    Slow growth (in children), fatigue, poor resistance to malnutrition and irregular periods for women
  31. What are deficiency diseases caused by a lack of?
    Vitamins and minerals
  32. What deficiency disease can a lack of vitamin C cause and what are the health effects of it?
    Scurvy - causes problems with skin, joints and gums
  33. What's the difference between malnutrition and starvation?
    With malnutrition you're getting food (even though your diet is unbalanced) whereas with stavation you're not getting any sort of food
  34. Are people who exercise healthier?
    Usually, although they must have a good diet too
  35. Does exercise decrease or increase the amount of energy used by the body?
  36. Does exercise decrease or increase the amount stored as fat?
  37. Exercise decreases the amount stored as....
  38. Can you be physically fit and malnourished at the same time?
    Yes (you can be slim but malnourished at the same time because your diet isn't balanced)
  39. What gland can inherited factors cause to be underactive, which can lower the metabolic rate and cause obesity?
    Thyroid gland
  40. What 2 main factors can people inherit that affect their health?
    An underactive thyroid gland (which can lower the metabolic rate and cause obesity) and people may inherit factors that affect their blood cholesterol level (increased blood cholesterol level increases risk of heart disease)
  41. What is cholesterol?
    A fatty substance that's essential for good health - it's found in every cell of the body. Increased cholesterol levels could increase the risk of heart disease
  42. What disease can increased cholesterol levels increase the risk of?
    Heart disease
  43. What can energy be measured as on nutritional information labels?
    Kilojoules (kJ) or Calories (kcal)
  44. Is unsaturated fat bad for you?
  45. Which food is healthier? A: Energy=388 kJ, protein=6g, saturated fat=2.2g or B: Energy= 305 kJ, protein=3g, saturated fat=0.5g?
    B (as it has less saturated fat and less energy)
  46. Define lifestyle...
    What you eat and what you do
  47. Give 2 examples of slimming products...
    Diet pills, slimming milkshakes
  48. Give 1 example of a slimming program or a well known diet...
    Atkins Diet
  49. What 4 questions do you have to ask, to find out if a slimming product/program is reliable?
    • Is the report a scientific study, published in a reputable journal?
    • Was it written by a qualified person (not connected with sellers)?
    • Was the smaple of people tested large enough to give reliable results?
    • Have there been other studies which show similar results?
  50. Diets and slimming products will only work if you...
    Eat less fat/carbohydrates (to take in less energy), or do more exercise (to use more energy)
  51. To lose weight, you must take in......then you use
    Less energy
  52. Does eating low fat bars mean that you'll lose weight?
    No (eating them without changing the rest of your doesn't necessarily mean you'll lose weight - you will still be taking in too much energy)
  53. Why does regular exercise decrease the risk of becoming obese?
    Exercise increases the amount of energy used by the body and decreases the amount stored in fat. It also builds muscle so it helps your metabolic rate. The more energy you use (and the less fat you store), the less likely you are to become obese
  54. Why do you need cholestoral?
    You need cholesterol to form cell membranes, many hormones (e.g. sex horomones) and bile acids (which digest fat)
  55. Why does having high cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease?
    Blood vessels get clogged with fatty cholesterol deposits which reduces blood flow to the heart, possibly leading to angina (chestpain), or a heart attack (if the vessel is blocked completely
  56. Why is the liver important in controlling the amount of cholesterol in the body?
    It makes new cholesterol and removes it from the blood so that it can be eliminated from the body
  57. What does the amount of cholesterol your liver makes depend on?
    It depends on your diet and inherited factors
  58. Cholesterol is transported around the body in the blood by...
    Lipoproteins (fat attached to protein)
  59. What does HDL stand for?
    High density lipoprotein
  60. What does LDL stand for?
    Low density lipoproteins
  61. What do LDLs do?
    They carry cholesterol from the liver to the body cells
  62. Why are LDLs sometimes called 'bad cholesterol'?
    They’re sometimes called ‘bad cholesterol’ as any excess can build up in the arteries
  63. What do HDLs do?
    HDLs carry cholesterol that isn’t needed from the body cells back to the liver for removal from the body 
  64. Are HDLs good cholesterol or bad cholesterol?
  65. Are LDLs good cholesterol or bad cholesterol?
  66. The LDL/HDL balance is very important. Ideally, you want more......then......in the blood
    HDLs, LDLs
  67. What does BMI stand for? 
    Body Mass Index 
  68. What can BMI be used for?
    To tell how healthy a person's weight is by finding out if you're a healthy weight for your height
  69. What does 'Anorexia Nervosa' mean?
    It means ‘loss of appetite for nervous reasons’ (they have lost the ability to allow themselves to satisfy their appetite)
  70. How does anorexia distort your thoughts?
    It makes it impossible for you to make rational decisions about food as you think you're fat all of the time
  71. How can anorexia result in death?
    People may starve themselves or die from malnutrition
  72. What are the main 10 effects of anorexia?
    • Extreme weight loss
    • In children and teenagers, lack of growth
    • Constipation and abdominal pains 
    • Fatigue and feeling faint
    • Bloated stomach, puffy face and ankles
    • Downy hair on the body
    • Poor blood circulation and feeling cold 
    • Dry, rough, or discoloured skin
    • Loss of ‘periods’
    • Loss of bone mass and eventually osteoporosis (brittle bones)
  73. Why are saturated fats bad for you?
    They raise cholesterol  in the blood by increasing the amount the liver  makes and decreasing the amount it gets rid of – so they should be eaten in moderation
  74. What are the main sources of saturated fats?
    Animal fats and coconut
  75. Saturated fats have......(C=C) double bonds
  76. Why are polyunsaturated fats good for you?
    They tend to lower blood cholesterol by increasing its removal from the body and improve the LDL/HDL balance
  77. Polysaturated fats have......(C=C) double bond
    More than one
  78. What are the main sources of polysaturated fats?
    Nuts and seeds (sunflower, sesame, quorn, soya)
  79. What are the main sources of monosaturated fats?
    Olives, avocadoes and peanuts
  80. Monosaturated fats have......(C=C) double bond
    Exactly one
  81. Why are monostaurated fats good?
    They help to lower blood cholesterol and improve the LDL/HDL balance. Also, they lower levels of heart disease in some cases  
  82. How many grams of salt does your body need a day?
  83. What is another name for salt?
    Sodium chloride
  84. Why is salt needed in the body?
    To help muscles and nerves to work and to regulate blood pressure
  85. How could you change your cholesterol levels?
    By exercising and reducing the amount of fat in your diet
  86. Why are people who exercise regularly usually healthier then people who take little exercise?
    They are less likely to be overweight and will have more muscle so will burn more energy. This controls their weight and means that they are less likely to get arthritis, diabetes and high blood pressure. It also reduces cholesterol levels which reduce the risk of heart disease
  87. Using the data in Figure 3, which group of people do you think are most at risk of death? Why do you think this might be? What could they do to reduce the risk?

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    People who are least active are most at risk of dying. Unfit people have the most health problems and so any careful improvement in activity levels will be of benefit and they will lose weight
  88. Why do people who are very thin, and some people who are obese, suffer from deficiency diseases?
    People who are very thin do not take in enough food to get all the nutrients (vitamins, minerals, etc.) they need. Some people who are obese eat a lot of junk/fast food which is very low in minerals and vitamins, high in salt, fat, etc. So both can suffer from defi ciency diseases
  89. One slimming programme controls your food intake. Another controls your food intake but also has an exercise programme. Which do you think would be the most effective? Explain your answer
    The programme which combines controlled food intake and exercise. Taking in less energy and using up more energy will be most effective. It builds muscle which uses more energy
  90. Why do you need more energy in your diet when you are 18 than when you are 80?
    Generally, teenagers use more energy than the very elderly because they are more active and to build new cells as they are still growing
  91. Why does a top athlete need more energy in their diet than you do? Where does the energy in the diet come from?
    A top athlete probably has more muscle, which uses a lot of energy. The energy comes from proteins, fats and carbohydrates
  92. Explain why some people put on weight more easily than others
    Some people have a slower metabolic rate, some take less exercise, some eat more and do not use up all the energy they take in as food so they store the excess as fat
  93. Why does a pregnant woman need more energy than a woman who isn’t pregnant?
    Because a pregnant woman has to provide energy for a growing baby as well as herself
  94. What must you do to lose weight?
    Reduce your food (energy) intake, increase your exercise (energy output) or both
Card Set
B1.1.1 Diet and Exercise
Covers diet and exercise topic in Biology GCSE