Heart and Circulatory Diseases

  1. Gram Negative Sepsis
    cell wall of many gram-negative bacteria contain endotoxins that are released upon lysis (membrane dissolution) of the cell

    causes a severe drop in blood pressure

    administration of antibiotics may aggravate the condition by causing the lysis of large numbers of bacteria that release more endotoxins
  2. puerperal sepsis
    nosocomial infection

    infection of the uterus and is a result of childbirth or abortion

    Streptococcus pyogenes
  3. endocarditis
    an inflammation of the endocardium (innermost layer of tissue lining the heart)
  4. subacute bacterial endocarditis
    symptoms: fever, general weakness, and heart murmur

    usually caused by alpha-hemolytic sstreptococci such as are common in the oral cavity
  5. acute bacterial endocarditis
    people whose heart valves are abnormal because of either congenital heart defects or such disease as rheumatic fever and syphilis, the bacteria lodge in the pre-existing lesions

    within the lesions the bacteria multiply and become entrapped in blood clots that protect them from phagocytes and antibodies

    usually caused by staphylococcus aureus
  6. rheumatic fever
    streptooccus pyogenes

    age 4-18 and often follows an episode of streptococcal sore throat

    damages the valves
  7. anthrax
    Bacillus anthracis

    large aerobic gram + endospore, capable of multiplying in and destroying macrophages, tx of choice is cipro or doxycycline
  8. gengrene
    clostridium, thrive on dead cells from ischemic tissues, organisms produce enzymes that degrade collagen and spread the disease to adjacent tissues, Tx surgical removal of necrotic tissue removal of necrotic tissue
  9. lyme disease
    • Borrelia burgdorferi, vector
    • tickborne, prevalent on Altlantic coast, 
    • reservoir field mice, symptoms include rash at bite  site, clears in the center as it expands to
    • 15cm

    Tx antibiotics, w/o Tx can effect the heart and nervous system
  10. typhus

    vector Pediculus humanus corporis

    • symptoms small red spots, subcutaneous
    • hemorrhaging from blood vessel invasion

    Tx , tetracycline, chloramphenicol
  11. spotted fever

    • vector: ticks, passed through
    • transovarian passage

    symptoms: rash on palms and soles, fever, headache

    Tx: tetracycline and chloramphenicol- 
  12. infectious mononucleosis
    Epstien Barr-Virus

    self limiting, seldom fatal,

    MOT transfer: of saliva

    symptoms: throat infection
  13. yellow fever
    yellow fever virus, zoonotic

    vector: mosquito

    signs and symptoms: jaundice, fever, chills

    Tx: vaccine
  14. dengue fever
    viral, not zoonotic

    vector: mosquito

    milder than yellow fever, rash, musle, and joint pain

    Tx: vaccine
  15. lassa fever
    hanta virus, spread through human body fluid

    reservoir: rodent

    manifests as fatal pulmonary infection filling lungs with fluid
  16. malaria
    protozoan Plasmodium

    vetor: mosquito

    symptoms: chills, fever, vomiting, headache

    Tx: quinine derivatives
  17. Plasmodium vivax
    most prevalent
  18. Plasmodium ovale and malariae
    usually benign, lower incidence
  19. Plasmodium falciparum
    most dangerous, cerebral marlaia
Card Set
Heart and Circulatory Diseases
Heart and Circulatory Diseases