Therio, Q2, Pig

  1. When is puberty in gilts (female pigs no babies yet)?
    7 months
  2. When is the best estrus to breed gilts on?
    • 3rd estrus
    • peak = 4-7th
  3. How long does estrus last in the sow?
    ~53 hours
  4. How long is the inter-estrus interval?
  5. When is PGF2alpha refractory in the sow?
    until day 12
  6. What does boar exposure do for litter size and estrus?
    • increases litter size
    • speeds up estrus
  7. When is ovulation after heat seen?
    40 hours after estrus/heat
  8. What does suckling and lactation do for cyclic activity?
    • supresses it
    • weaning earlier results in ovarian abnormalities
  9. Do pigs have follicular waves?
    no follicular waves
  10. What is the pregnancy marker in the sow?
    estrogen- its the signal for maternal recognition too
  11. How many conceptuses are needed for establishment of pregnancy?
    4 conceptuses needed
  12. Pregnancy is maintained by the CL or the placenta?
    CL maintains pregnancy
  13. When is the best time to inseminate a sow?
    • 8 hours before ovulation
    • (therefore 12-36 hrs after estrus starts)
  14. What percent of sows farrow at night?
  15. How do you often know the sow is done with parturition?
    she stands and urinates
  16. What is the normal stillbirth rate in farrowings? when is the rate increased?
    • 3-6% stillbirths= normal
    • increased rate in litter size <4 and >14
  17. What are some signs that farrowing is near?
    • milk release ~24 hrs before
    • nesting, relaxing vulva
  18. What is the procedure for using prostaglandins to induce farrowing?
    • inject 2-3 days before you want farrowing
    • they farrow 24-36 hrs after injection
    • safe after day 110
  19. What are the two most common reasons for pig dystocia?
    • inertia
    • oversize/malpresentation
  20. If abortion occurs before 35 days what happens?
    resorption becuse this is before skeletalization
  21. What happens if abortion occurs after 35 days?
    mummification = >35d gestation
  22. The viral causes of abortion often result in what?
    • mummification
    • (remember this is sterile)
  23. There are 3 groups of infectious infertility- what is Group 1?
    • opportunists
    • (staph, strep, Erysipelothrix, Eperythrozoon, Arcanobacter, salmonella, pasteurella, fungi, escheria)
  24. What is Group 2 of infectious infertility?
    • contagious causes
    • (teschoviruses, porcine parvovirus)
  25. What is group 3 of infectious infertility?
    • significant diseases- some are zoonotic
    • control by slaughter or vaccination
    • (PRRS, African Swine fever, Hog Cholera, Brucellosis, lepto, venereal, Aujesky's)
  26. PRRS is otherwise known as what disease?
    "Blue eared pig disease"
  27. Is Autumn Abortion Syndrome infectious?
    No- this is a non infectious cause of infertility
  28. Why does Autumn Abortion Syndrome occur?when does it happen?
    • unknown cause- could be many things
    • from Sept-Dec from 30-110days gestation
  29. What are the clinical signs and pathologic lesions with Autumn abortion syndrome?
    • no clinical signs
    • no pathological lesions
  30. Is there such a thing as too much nutrition?
    YES- a high plane of nutrition can decrease alive ambryps and decrease their survival
  31. What is the average weaning to estrus interval?
    3-14 days (aim for 7 days)
  32. What effects the weaning to estrus interval?
    boar, lactation length, suckling, removing the biggest piglets, nutrition, genetics, light ect
  33. What is split weaning?
    • removing the heaviest piglets from nursing on the sow therefore weaning them first
    • helps the milk stress on the mom
  34. What are some similar signs to Hypogalactia?
    • Dysgalactia
    • MMA= metritis, mastitis, agalactia
  35. What are some causes of hypogalactia?
    • coliform mastitis
    • endotoxemia
    • uterine infections
    • stress
  36. What are some risk factors for sows to get hypogalactia?
    • fat sows
    • housing
    • nutrition
    • urinary infections
  37. What are some clinical signs of hypogalactia?
    • not eating
    • vulvular dischage
    • pyrexia >103 F
    • delayed parturition
  38. How can I treat hypogalactia?
    • Grem neg antibiotics
    • induce parturition
    • oxytocin
  39. What do the piglets look like from a hypogalactic sow?
    • weight loss later
    • increased mortality
    • diarrhea and restlessness in first 3 days
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Therio, Q2, Pig
Therio, Q2, Pig