Micro Test 3: Salmonella,Shigella

  1. How do you contract salmonella?
    Contaminated food (chicken, eggs, etc.)
  2. Salmonella invades and replicates in the _____ of the _________ in the small intestine
    • M cells
    • Peyer's Patch
  3. Salmonella's Pathogenesis includes initial invasion of the intestinal mucosa via a __________ encoded on a _________
    • Type III SS
    • Pathogenicity Island (SPI-1)
  4. What Salmonella apparatus secretes invasion proteins (Sips or Ssps) into M cells?  What does this cause?
    SPI-1, causes host membrane ruffling and engulfment of bacteria
  5. Salmonella are resistant to acidic pH due to?
    Acid Tolerance Response gene
  6. What type of bacteria has an ATR gene?
  7. Subsequent systemic Salmonella disease occurs  by a _____ encoded on a ________
    Type III secretion system, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2)
  8. What replicates within the vacuole and what replicates once its escaped the vacuole?
    • Inside vacuole:  Salmonella
    • After they escape vacuole:  Shigella
  9. Serovars of Salmonella that cause typhoid and paratyphoid fever pass through the cells lining the _____ and are _____. 
    Serovars replicate after transport to the ____, ____, and ____
    • intestinal mucosa
    • engulfed by macrophages
    • liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  10. Fever, headache, malaise, and anorexia set in ____ days after ingestion of Salmonella.

    One week or longer after symptom onset:  GI symptoms, bacteremic phase, colonization of the gallbladder and reinfection of the intestines occurs.
  11. S. typhi and S. paratyphi are ____
    strict human pathogens
  12. Salmonella:
    Asymptomatic colonization (usually by S. typhi or S. paratyphi) occurs in 1-5% of patients.  These patients harbor it in the _____ and shed it in the feces.
  13. Name the 3 things that cause paratyphoid fever.
    S. parathyphi A, S. schottmuelleri, and S. hirschfeldii
  14. Most common form of salmonellosis.
    Common culprits?
    • Gastroenteritis
    • S. typhimurium
    • S. eteritidis

    Symptoms in 6-48 hrs:  nauseau, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea
  15. Serovars of Salmonella that are more commonly associated with bacteremia.
    S. choleraesuis, S. paratyphi, S. typhi
  16. Salmonella on TSI
    • Red slant
    • black line
    • yellow butt
  17. Salmonella tx:
    1)  Enteritis
    2)  S. typhi, S. paratyphi
    • 1)  Antibiotics NOT recommended
    • 2)Choose an antibiotic based on susceptibility testing (fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulfa-trimethoprim, broad-spectrum cephalosporin)
  18. Shigella:
    1)  How many species?
    2)  All species contain?
    • 1) 4 species:  S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei
    • 2)  45 O-antigen-based serogroup
  19. What type of Shigella is most common in developed countries?
    S. sonnei
  20. What type of Shigella is most common in underdeveloped countries?
    S. flexneri
  21. Shigella invades and replicates in the
    colonic mucosa.
  22. Shigella virulence factor genes are carried on a _____ but are regulated by _______
    • large plasmid
    • chromosomal genes
  23. What type of flagella:
    E. coli
    • E. coli= peritrichous
    • Shigella= none
  24. Like Salmonella, Shigella first attaches to the ____ on ____
    M Cells on Peyer's Patches
  25. Shigella Pathogenesis:
    1)  Shigella Type III Secretion System allows secretion of _____ into epithelial cells and macrophages.
    2)  Host membrane ruffling occurs and the bacteria are engulfed within the cell in a phagocytic-like vacuole
    3)Bacteria lyse the vacuole, escape into the cytoplasm, and replicate.
    four invasion plasmid antigens (IpaA, IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD)
  26. Since Shigella don't have a flagella and are nonmotile, they induce _____ in the host and use the ______ to move within the cell and to adjacent cells.
    • Actin polymerization
    • actin tails
  27. Shigella survive phagocytosis by
    • 1)  Residing intracellularly
    • 2)  Inducing apoptosis of macrophages
  28. When Shigella induces macrophage apoptosis, ____ is released.  This attracts _____, which destabilizes the intestinal wall.
    • IL-1B
    • PMNs
  29. Which Shigella produces Shiga toxin?  Which E.coli produces Shiga toxin?
    • Shigella dystenteriae
    • EHEC
  30. Shigella primarily affects?
  31. Shigellosis is characterized by what symptoms?
    Symptoms start ____ after ingestion
    First sign:
    • Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, high fever, bloody stools
    • 1-3 days
    • Profuse watery diarrhea
  32. Shigella Diagnosis is made by:
    • Isolation from stool
    • Selective media
  33. Shigella on TSI
    • Yellow butt, red slant (doesn't ferment lactose, doesn't produce H2S)
    • Urea -
  34. Treat Shigella by
    Antibiotic therapy (fluroquinolones, sulfa-trimethoprim)
  35. Gram-N enteric that causes the plague and gastroenteritis.
  36. Prominent characteristic virulence factor of Klebsiella:
    Copious mucoid capsule
  37. Which enterobacteriaceae has a copious mucoid capsule?
  38. What people are at higher risks for Klebsiella?
    • Alcoholics
    • People w/ compromised pulmonary function
  39. Name 2 common types of Klebsiella.
    • K. pneumoniae
    • K. oxytoca (CA-primary lobar pneumonia)
  40. NDM-1 (metallo-beta-lactamase-1) was first detected in?
    K. pneumoniae
  41. Klebsiella causes
    • Pneumonia (what it is most known for)
    • Liver abscesses in alcoholics
    • UTIs
    • Granulomatous disease of nose or genitals
  42. K. pneumonia:
    Necrotic destruction of ____
    Formation of ____
    Production of _________
    • alveolar spaces
    • cavities
    • blood-tinged sputum
  43. What bacteria causes liver abscesses in alcoholics?
  44. 1)  What disease is transmitted after repeated exposure through sexual intercourse or nonsexual trauma to the genitalia.
    2)  How long is incubation?
    3)  Presents as?
    • 1)  K. granulomatis (granuloma inguinale or donovanosis)
    • 2)  weeks or months
    • 3)  Subcutaneous nodules which break down into granulomatous lesions
  45. Which bacteria does not grow outside of cells in vitro, and therefore requires tissues or scrapings?
    What do you stain these with?
    What do you see?
    • K. granulomatis (K. pneumonia can be grown on culture media)
    • Giemsa or Wright's stains
    • Appearance of small rods in the cytoplasms of histiocytes, PMNs, and plasma cells (Donovan Bodies)
  46. What disease are Donovan bodies present in?  What do they look like?
    • Klebsiella graulomatis
    • Appearance of small rods inthe cytoplasms of histiocytes, PMNs or plasma cells
  47. K. pneumoniae on MacConkey:
    Lactose fermenting:  + or -
    What color
    Positive for fermenting lactose (pink)
  48. Klebsiella Tx:
    Tetracycline, erythromycin, sulfa-trimethoprim (antibiotic prophylaxis is useless)
  49. 2 Forms of Proteus:
    • 1) Swimmers (8-10 flagella)
    • 2)  Swarmers (Peritrichous flagella), form concentric patern on semi-solid agar surface, big problem for people with catheters
  50. Most common Proteus disease
  51. Name the 3 most common types of Proteus.
    • P. mirabilis
    • P. vulgaris
    • P. penneri
  52. Which bacteria has urease that splits urea into CO2 and ammonia, thus raising urine pH and causing renal stones?
  53. Which bacteria is urease +?
  54. Which 2 bacteria have phase variation?
    E. coli, Proteus
  55. Nitrofurantoin (commonly given for UTIs) is not effective for what common cause of UTI?
  56. Tigecycline is not effective for Proteus alone.  It must be combined with?
  57. Enterobacter is multiple antibiotic resistant.  Name 2 types and what they cause.
    • E. cloaceae:  HA neonatal sepsis
    • E. sakazakii:  Food-borne in powdered baby formula --> necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis, and sepsis in neonates
  58. What bacteria causes splenic abscess and neonatal meningitis?
    Citrobacter freundii
  59. What bacteria causes sepsis, meningitis, and brain abscesses in neonates?
  60. Name 2 ways citrobacter can be transmitted.
    Nosocomial or vertically
  61. Causes bacteremia in hospital patients, UtIs, wound infections, and is resistant to B-lactams
    Morganells morganii
  62. What bacteria can cause Contact lens induced acute red eye (CLARE)?
  63. Serratia color:
    In incubator=
    In room temp=
    • Incubator = white
    • Room= red
Card Set
Micro Test 3: Salmonella,Shigella
Salmonella, Shigella