What are the other forms of Vitamin A and what is thier function?
- Retinol- hormone and eye pigment
- Retinoic Acid - drug for acne
- 11-cis-Retinol - Cofactor for rhodopsis (vision)
What can be enzymatically converted into vitamin A?
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
- development of epithelial cells
which water soluble vitamin is non-B-complex?
Vitamin C (absorbic acid)
Which vitamins are hormone precursors?
A and D
Which vitamins are most toxic?
A and D
What are the results of vitamin A deficiency?
- Night blindness
- eye problems
- total blindness
What are the symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity?
blurred vision, birth defects, vomiting, abortion
What are the other two forms of Vitamin D?
- Cholecalciferol (D3)
- Ergcholecalciferol (D2)
What is the function of Vitamin D?
maintains the body's ability to absorb P and Ca
Where can vitamin D be found?
Dairy and sun
Deficiency of what vitamin causes bone defects, osteomalacia, rickets (in kids)?
what is the group of compounds that exhibits Vitamin E activity?
what are the fat soluble vitamins?
What is the function of Vitamin E?
- maintain cell membrane integrity
What is associated with Vitamin E deficiency?
- Its rare
- cardiovascular disease
What is another term for vitamin K?
What is its function?
- cofactor for blood clotting
- Cofactor for eubiquinone
What prevents blood clotting?
What vitamins are Isoprenoids?
E and K
What is an isoprenoid composed of?
- 4 linear carbons
- 5 carbons off to the side
What is the reduced form of Vitamin C?
What is the ionized form of Vitamin C?
What is the oxidized form of Vitamin C?
What is the function of Vitamin C?
- Cofactor for collagen
What are the symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency?
- poor healing
- heart failure
What are the other forms of Vitamin B1?
- Thiamine pyrophosphate
What is the function of Vitamin B1 (thiamine)?
- Carbohydrate metabolism
- CoFactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase
- CoFactor for alpha ketogluterate
What dificiencies are associated with vitamin B1 (thamine)?
- Beriber - heart failure, peripheral neuropathy
- Wernicke-Korsakoff - alcoholics
What Vitamin activates vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)?
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
What is riboflavin a cofactor for?
What is the function of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)?
- facilitate redox reactions
- Metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, carbs
What are the forms of Vitamin B3?
What is synthesized from Vitamin B3 (Niacin)?
What is Vitamin B3 synthesized from?
What is the deficiency of vitamin B3 (Niacin) associated with?
What are the four D's of Pallagra?
What is another name for vitamin B12?
What are the 2 coenzymes Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine) is used to synthesize?
What is the function of Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)?
maintain health nerves and red blood cells
What does Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine) need to be absorbed?
What occurs from Vitamin B12 deficiency ?
- Reduced RBC's
- Nervous system impairment
- Pernicious anemia (lack of intrinsic co-factor)
What Vitamin is the enzyme cofactor Pyridoxyl Phosphate (PLP) derived from?
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
What is the function of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)?
- Needed for +100 enzymes
- transfer amino acids
What vitamin is also called pantothenic acid?
What is the function of Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)?
- precursos to co-enzyme A
- carrier of Acetyl Co-A
What is the function of Vitamin B7 (Biotin)?
- Carboxylizes pyruvate to form oxaloacetate
- Acetyl-Co A
- propionyl Co A
- Necessary for Krebs
What is the derivative of folic acid?
Tetrahydrofolate (reduced CO2)
What is the result of folic acid deficiency?
- Stop DNA from being synthesis
- megaloblastic anemia
what is the function of copper?
- oxidative metabolism
- neurotransmitter synthesis
- collagen synthesis
Function of Iodine?
essential component of thyroid hormone
Function of Iron?
essential component of hemoglobin
Function of Selenium?
component of glutathione peroxidase
Function of potassium?
Co-regulates ATP with sodium
Function of Chloride?
needed for production of HCl
Function of Calcium?
- muscle, heart, digestive health
- builds bones
- synthesis and function of RBC's
Function of Phosphorus?
Function of Magnesium?
Function of Sodium?
Essential in co-regulation of ATP