Biochem Vitamins

  1. What are the other forms of Vitamin A and what is thier function?
    • Retinol- hormone and eye pigment
    • Retinoic Acid - drug for acne
    • 11-cis-Retinol - Cofactor for rhodopsis (vision)
  2. What can be enzymatically converted into vitamin A?
  3. What are the functions of Vitamin A?
    • Vision
    • development of epithelial cells
  4. which water soluble vitamin is non-B-complex?
    Vitamin C (absorbic acid)
  5. Which vitamins are hormone precursors?
    A and D
  6. Which vitamins are most toxic?
    A and D
  7. What are the results of vitamin A deficiency?
    • Night blindness
    • eye problems
    • total blindness
  8. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity?
    blurred vision, birth defects, vomiting, abortion
  9. What are the other two forms of Vitamin D?
    • Cholecalciferol (D3)
    • Ergcholecalciferol (D2)
  10. What is the function of Vitamin D?
    maintains the body's ability to absorb P and Ca
  11. Where can vitamin D be found?
    Dairy and sun
  12. Deficiency of what vitamin causes bone defects, osteomalacia, rickets (in kids)?
    Vitamin D
  13. what is the group of compounds that exhibits Vitamin E activity?
  14. what are the fat soluble vitamins?
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  15. What is the function of Vitamin E?
    • Antioxidant
    • maintain cell membrane integrity
  16. What is associated with Vitamin E deficiency?
    • Its rare
    • atherosclerosis
    • cardiovascular disease
  17. What is another term for vitamin K?
  18. What is its function?
    • cofactor for blood clotting
    • Cofactor for eubiquinone
  19. What prevents blood clotting?
  20. What vitamins are Isoprenoids?
    E and K
  21. What is an  isoprenoid composed of?
    • 4 linear carbons
    • 5 carbons off to the side
  22. What is the reduced form of Vitamin C?
    Ascorbic acid
  23. What is the ionized form of Vitamin C?
  24. What is the oxidized form of Vitamin C?
    Dehydroascorbic acid
  25. What is the function of Vitamin C?
    • Antioxitant
    • Cofactor for collagen
  26. What are the symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency?
    • Scurvy
    • poor healing
    • heart failure
  27. What are the other forms of Vitamin B1?
    • Thiamine
    • Thiamine pyrophosphate
  28. What is the function of Vitamin B1 (thiamine)?
    • Carbohydrate metabolism
    • CoFactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase
    • CoFactor for alpha ketogluterate
  29. What dificiencies are associated with vitamin B1 (thamine)?
    • Beriber - heart failure, peripheral neuropathy
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff - alcoholics
  30. What Vitamin activates vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)?
    Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
  31. What is riboflavin a cofactor for?
  32. What is the function of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)?
    • facilitate redox reactions
    • Metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, carbs
  33. What are the forms of Vitamin B3?
    • Niacin
    • Nicotinic acid
  34. What is synthesized from Vitamin B3 (Niacin)?
  35. What is Vitamin B3 synthesized from?
  36. What is the deficiency of vitamin B3 (Niacin) associated with?
  37. What are the four D's of Pallagra?
    • Diarrehea
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
    • Death
  38. What is another name for vitamin B12?
  39. What are the 2 coenzymes Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine) is used to synthesize?
    • Methylcobalamin
    • 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
  40. What is the function of Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)?
    maintain health nerves and red blood cells
  41. What does Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine) need to be absorbed?
    Intrinsic Co-Factor
  42. What occurs from Vitamin B12 deficiency ?
    • Reduced RBC's
    • Nervous system impairment
    • Pernicious anemia (lack of intrinsic co-factor)
  43. What Vitamin is the enzyme cofactor Pyridoxyl Phosphate (PLP) derived from?
    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  44. What is the function of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)?
    • Needed for +100 enzymes
    • transfer amino acids
  45. What vitamin is also called pantothenic acid?
    Vitamin B5
  46. What is the function of Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)?
    • precursos to co-enzyme A
    • carrier of Acetyl Co-A
    • Metabolism
  47. What is the function of Vitamin B7 (Biotin)?
    • Carboxylizes pyruvate to form oxaloacetate
    • Acetyl-Co A
    • propionyl Co A
    • Necessary for Krebs
  48. What is the derivative of folic acid?
    Tetrahydrofolate (reduced CO2)
  49. What is the result of folic acid deficiency?
    • Stop DNA from being synthesis
    • megaloblastic anemia
  50. what is the function of copper?
    • oxidative metabolism
    • neurotransmitter synthesis
    • collagen synthesis
  51. Function of Iodine?
    essential component of thyroid hormone
  52. Function of Iron?
    essential component of hemoglobin
  53. Function of Selenium?
    component of glutathione peroxidase
  54. Function of potassium?
    Co-regulates ATP with sodium
  55. Function of Chloride?
    needed for production of HCl
  56. Function of Calcium?
    • muscle, heart, digestive health
    • builds bones
    • synthesis and function of RBC's
  57. Function of Phosphorus?
    energy processing
  58. Function of Magnesium?
    processing ATP
  59. Function of Sodium?
    Essential in co-regulation of ATP
Card Set
Biochem Vitamins