psych test 4

  1. describe 2 of Freud's defense Mechanisms and give examples
    • Repression: unconsious motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories
    • Denial: motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
    • Regression: act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safter age
    • Reaction Formation: swich unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
    • Projection: the unconsious attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities onto others
    • Rationalization: providing a reasonable sounding explaination for unreasonable behaviors
    • Displacement: shifts emotional impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
  2. identify the biological & psychological/social factors in agression
    • biological influences are
    • genetic factors: heredity
    • neural factors: brain activity
    • biochemistry: hormones

    • psychological/social influences are
    • averse conditions and feeling frusterated
    • getting reinforced for agressive behavior
    • having a gression modeled at home or in the media
    • adopting social scripts for agression from culture and the media
  3. list in order & describe Freud's psychosexual stages including ages
    • oral stage: birth to 18 months: infants obtain pleasure through oral activities such as sucking, chewing, biting, and drinking
    • anal stage:18 months to 3 yrs. pleasure comes from elimination; focuses on toilet training
    • phallic stage:3-6 yr olds focuses on genitals; child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent
    • latency stage:6-12 yr olds. sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious; dormant
    • genital stage:12- adulthood. sexual impulses reawaken and mature into romantic attraction toward others
  4. in light of modern research evalutate the psychoanalytic perspective
    • Neuroscience: how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
    • evolutionary: how the natural selection of triats has promoted the survival of genes
    • behavior genetics: how our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
    • psychodynamic: how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
    • behavioral: how we learn observable responses
    • cognitive: how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
    • social-cultural: how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
  5. list 5 situations in which people are more likely to conform
    • 1. one is made to feel imcompetant or insecure
    • 2. the group has a least 3 people
    • 3. the group is unanimous
    • 4. one admires the group's status and attractivness
    • 5. one has no prior commitment to a response
    • 6. the group observes one's behavior
    • 7. one's culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard.
  6. list and descibe the 5 charactertistics of the trait theory
    • Openess: intellectually curious
    • Conscientiousness: careful and responsible
    • Extraversion: social and lively
    • Agreeableness: friendly, easy to get along wiht
    • Neuroticism: tense and moody
  7. When are bystanders more likely to help? (5 answers)
    • 1. if we are not in a hurry
    • 2. if we are not preoccupied
    • 3. if we observe someone else being helpful
    • 4. if we are feeling guilty
    • 5. if the person is similar to us in some way
    • 6. if the person is a woman
    • 7. if we are in a good mood
  8. Personality Theory
    attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people's
  9. personality
    An individual's characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors persisting over time
  10. models of personality theory
    • psychoanalytic model
    • behavioral model
    • social-cognitive model
    • humanistic model
    • trait model
  11. psychoanalytic model
    • emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behavior. believes strongly in the influence of early childhood experience
    • freud
  12. behavioral
    • consist of behaviors and emphasizes that differences stem from genetic factors and contingencies in the environment (reward and punishment). Personalities are bundles of habits acquired by classical and operant conditioning. you are what you do. do not accept the idea of free will in personality
    • watson
  13. social-cognitive
    • personality is influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context
    • Bandura
  14. humanistic
    • optimistic view of human nature emphasizing self-awareness, free choice and self-fulfillment. the focus is on potential for healthy personal growth. Exactly opposite of behaviorist and psychoanalytic.
    • Maslow & Rodgers
  15. trait model
    aims to pinpoint the major traits such as extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience.
  16. 3 concepts of the Psyche
    • Id: the basic instincts; primitive impulses; the reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that seeks to satisfy sexual and agressive drives
    • Ego: the boss, the psyche's concious executive part of personalittiy that mediates among the id, superego, and reality; principal decision maker
    • Superego: conscience; the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and fore future aspirations
  17. neofreudian theories disagreed with Freud on 3 points
    • personality is not determined by early childhood experiences
    • less emphasis on sexuality as a driving force in personality
    • more optimistic regarding long-term personality growth
  18. Alfred Adler
    • childhood tensions are social in nature, not sexual
    • inferiority complex: feelings of inferiority that can lead to overcompensation; mental illness are compensation for inferiority
  19. Karen Horney
    • 3 patterns of behavior
    • move toward other people:excessive need for approval and affection
    • move against other people: excessive need for power
    • move away from other people: excessive need for independence and self-sufficiency
  20. Carl Jung
    collective unconscious- shared inherited reservoir of memory (storehouse of memories that ancestors have passed down to us)
  21. vocabulary for social-cognitive perspective
    • Locus of control: the extent to which people believe that reinforces and punishers lie inside or outside of their control
    • external locus of control: the idea that chance or outside forces determine one's fate
    • internal locus of control: the idea that we control our own fate
    • learned helplessness: the hopelessness and passive resignation a person learns when he/she is unable to avoid aversive events
  22. humanistic vocabulary words
    • peak experiences: transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world
    • self-actualization: the drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
  23. trait model vocabulary words
    • self: the core of our personality; the organizer and reservoir of our thoughts, feelings, actions, choices, attitudes
    • the spotlight effect: assuming that people have attention focused on you when they actually may not be noticing you
    • narcissism: self absorbsion, self-gratification, inflated but fragile self-worth. see themselves as having a special place in the world.
  24. social psychology
    • how we think in relation to other people
    • how we treat each other; relate to each other
  25. difference between personality psychologists and social psychologists
    • personality psychologists study traits that pertain to one person
    • social psychologists study situations that could influence anyone
  26. attribution theory
    we have a tendency to give causal explainations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
  27. attribution
    2 types
    • a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event
    • situational attribution: factors outside the person
    • dispositional attribution: the person's enduring traits, personality
  28. fundamental attibution error
    tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others
  29. attitudes
    beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events. attitudes affect our actions
  30. attitudes affect our actions when
    • 1. external influences ar e minimal
    • 2. the attitude is stable
    • 3. the attitude is specific to the behavior
    • 4. the attitude is easily recalled
  31. actions affect attitudes when
    when people stand for what they believe in they start believing in what they stand for
  32. three social cognitive mechanisms
    • foot in the door phenomenon
    • role play
    • cognitive dissonance
  33. foot in the door phenomenon
    the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  34. role play
    when you are given a role you can develop that attitude. like the students were assigned as prisoners and guards and they started to develop the appropriate attitudes towards each other
  35. cognitive dissonance
    when our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes
  36. 3 forms that social influence take
    • conformity
    • obedience
    • group behavior
  37. factors that increase obedience; when orders are given by
    • someone with authority
    • someone associated with a prestigious institution
    • someone is standing close by
    • when the "victim" is in another room
    • when others obey or no one else disobeys
  38. group behavior
    • social facilitation: improved performance on tasks in the prescence of others
    • social loafing: tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually
    • deindividuation: the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity (mob behavior)
  39. group polarization
    the tendency of group discussions to strengthen dominant attitudes or prevailing inclinations held by individual group members
  40. groupthink
    • mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a descision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives
    • like when people know something is a bad idea but they don't want to cause trouble so they dont say anything
  41. prejudice
    unjustifyable attitude toward a group and its members
  42. components of prejudice
    • beliefs
    • negative emotions
    • predisposition to act
  43. discrimination
    unjustified negative behavior applied to member of a select group
  44. sterotype
    generalized belief about a group, applied to every member of a group
  45. ingroup bias
    the tendency to favor one's own group
  46. scapegoat theory
    the observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame
  47. just world fallacy
    tendency of people to believe the world is just, people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  48. social script
    culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations like violent video games etc
  49. the mere exposure effect
    the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them
  50. passionate love
    aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
  51. companionate love
    deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
  52. altruism
    unselfish regard for the welfare of other people
  53. bystander effect
    tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Card Set
psych test 4
psych test 4