1. What are PABA esters used for
    UVB radiation absorption
  2. What determines the lethality of meningitis and meningococcemia
    meningeal LOS
  3. Where is the area postrema located
    Dorsal surface of medulla at the caudal end of the 4th ventricle
  4. GFAP stains for
    • Astrocytoma
    • ependymomas
    • oligodendrogliomas
  5. de Quervain thyroiditis presentation
    • thyrotoxicosis
    • tender thyroid
    • increased ESR
    • decreased radioactive iodine uptake
  6. Down syndrome causes
    • Meiotic nondisjunction
    • unbalanced Robertsonian translocations
    • Mosacism
  7. Histo of Actinic keratosis
    • Acanthosis
    • parakeratosis
    • dyskeratosis
    • hyperkeratosis
  8. Lung abscess aspiration consists of
    • From the orophayrnyx
    • Fusobacterium
    • Peptostreptococcus
    • Bacteroides
  9. Non-ergot D2 agonists
    • Pramipexole
    • ropinerole
  10. Takayasu arteritis and temporal arteritis have what in common
    Granulomatous inflammation of the media
  11. What is Valproic acid used for
    General tonic clonic seizures with absence seizures
  12. Where does alzhiemers AB amyloid deposit
    • Parenchyma
    • vascular walls
  13. Light microscopy of shingles
    • Intranuclear inclusions in keratinocytes
    • multinucleated giant cells
  14. Acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
    No B oxidation -> hypoglycemia and no ketone bodies present
  15. Carcinoid heart disease what do you see in urine
    5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
  16. Which of the inflammatory bowel diseases is associated with bloody diarrhea
    Ulcerative colitis
  17. How is altered gene expression in Huntingtons disease achieved
    Through hypermethylation of histones
  18. How does S. aureus lead to hepatic abscess of the liver
    Via hematogenous seeding
  19. How does bacterial endocarditis lead to RBC casts
    The immune complexes deposit in the kidney
  20. How does cortisol control epinephrine synthesis
    By regulating PNMT
  21. What lab work is seen with Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
    • Increased ASO titers
    • decreased serum C3 levels
  22. Presentation of thalamic syndrome
    • Complete sensory loss on contralateral side of the body
    • increased falls
  23. How does Hypertension and Diabete mellitus lead to lacunar infarcts
    • Increasing lipohyalinosis
    • Atherosclerosis
  24. How is tissue damage and abscess formed
    From the lysosomal enzyme release form neutrophils and macrophages
  25. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo
    • Ventricular dilation
    • cortical atrophy
    • no increase in CSF pressure
  26. Villous adenomas secrete what
    large amounts of mucus -> secretory diarrhea
  27. Shigella AB toxin
    targets 60S ribosome that halts protein synthesis
  28. How does TCA cause tremor and insomnia
    Inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and NEP
  29. MOA of ehtambutol
    • inhibit arabinosyl transferase
    • Eye problems
  30. Problem with Direct arteriole vasodilators
    Reflex sympathetic activation
  31. Patient with history of psychosis is on anitpyschotics and complains of parkinsonian symptoms what is the best treatment
    Anticholinergics (Benztropine)
  32. Eye problem associated with Atropine
    Acute closed angle glaucoma
  33. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy does what in the brain
    recurrent hemorrhagic stroke
  34. Lipofuscin formation
    • via lipid peroxidation
    • yellow brown pigment
  35. What does isoniazid have to be activated by
    catalzase peroxidase of mycobacteria
  36. How does nephrotic syndrome lead to left sided varicocele
    Loss of anti-thrombin III -> thrombus formation -> left sided varicocele
  37. Problems seen in patients with bulimia nervosa
    • B/L parotid gland enlargement
    • erosion of tooth enamel
  38. Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies are against
    Desmoglein 1 and 3
  39. What drugs cause seizrues
    • Bupropion
    • isoniazid
    • imipenem
  40. Zairfurlukast is against what
    LTC,D,E 4
  41. What heart abnormality is common with DOWNS SYNDROME
    endocardial cushion defects
  42. Hyaline arteriolosclerosis
    Usually in nonmalignant hypertension or diabetes

    Homogenous deposition of eosinophilic hyaline material in the intima and media of small arteries and arterioles
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