1. Do vitamins and minerals have calories?
    no, because they are not burned for energy.

    They are too small.
  2. Vitamins are _____-soluble or _____-soluble
    water; fat
  3. _______ vitamins circulate in the blood freely, are _______ easily in urine, and have a _______ risk of toxicity
    • water-soluble
    • excreted
    • lower
  4. _______ vitamins are not soluble in _______, so they require a _______ carrier to circulate.
    • fat-soluble
    • blood
    • protein
  5. ___ are easily stored in body ___, so higher risk of ___.
    • Fat-soluble
    • fat
    • toxicity
  6. List the water-soluble vitamins
    • Thiamine (B1)
    • Riboflavin (B2)
    • Niacin (B3)
    • Pyridoxine (B6)
    • Folate
    • Cobalamin (B12)
    • Biotin
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • Choline
    • Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  7. List the fat-soluble vitamins
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  8. Vitamin ___ is a condition in which a person develops symptoms as side effects from taking massive doses of ___.
    • toxicity
    • vitamins
  9. Vitamin toxicity is also known as
  10. ___ is a term pertaining to foods to which ___ have been added within limits specified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, usually to replace nutrients ___ during ___.
    • vitamins or minerals
    • lost
    • processing
  11. ___ is the term used in reference to foods containing nutrients that have been artificially ___ to foods that do not ___ contain them, such as milk fortified with vitamin D.
    • fortified
    • added
    • naturally
  12. Thiamine (B1)
    Food sources:
    • Function: coenzyme energy metabolism; muscle nerve action
    • Deficiency: ataxia, pain, anorexia, mental disorientation; wet beriberi, dry beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    • Toxicity: none
    • Food sources: lean pork, whole or enriched grains and flours, legumes, seeds, and nuts.
  13. ___ in excess will cause ___ deficiency because the liver uses ___ to ___ alcohol. If there's too much alcohol and not enough thiamine-->deficiency.
    • alcohol
    • thiamine
    • thiamine
    • detoxify
  14. Riboflavin (B2)
    Food sources:
    • Function: coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients in every cell of the body
    • Deficiency: ariboflavinosis with cheilosis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis
    • Toxicity: none
    • Food sources: milk/dairy products; meat, fish, poultry, and eggs; dark leafy greens; whole and enriched cereals
  15. Niacin (B3)
    Food sources:
    • Function: cofactor to enzymes involved in energy metabolism; glycolysis and TCA cycle; raise HDL cholesterol
    • Deficiency: 4 D's of Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
    • Toxicity: niacin "flush" b/c it opens up the capillaries
    • Food sources: meats, poultry, and fish; legumes; whole and enriched cereals; milk
  16. Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C
    Food sources:
    • Function: antioxidant, coenzyme, collagen formation, wound healing, iron absorption, hormone synthesis, "cement that holds structures together"
    • Deficiency: scurvy
    • Toxicity: cramps, nausea, kidney stone formation, gout, rebound scurvy/ reverse toxicity
    • Food sources: fruits and vegetables (citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppers, strawberries, broccoli)
  17. Cobalamin (B12)
    Food sources:
    • Function: transport/storage of folate; metabolism of fatty acids/amino acids; develop + maintain myelin sheaths, growth and replication of all body cells
    • Deficiency: [usually secondary from lack of IF] pernicious anemia, megaloblastic anemia, CNS damage
    • Toxicity: none
    • Food sources: animal sources
  18. Folate/folic acid
    Food sources:
    • Function: coenzyme metabolism (synthesis of amino acid, heme, DNA + RNA; fetal neural tube formation; only works with B12
    • Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia, spina bifida
    • Toxicity: megadoses may mask pernicious anemia
    • Food sources: leafy green vegetables, legumes, ascorbic-acid containing foods.
  19. Pyridoxine Vitamin B6
    Food sources:
    • Function: forms coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) for energy metabolism; CNS; hemoglobin synthesis
    • Deficiency: dermatitis, altered nerve function, weakness, anemia; OCAs decrease B6 levels
    • Toxicity: ataxia, sensory neuropathy
    • Food sources: whole grains, cereals, legumes, poultry, fish, pork, eggs
  20. OCAs
    oral contraceptive agents
  21. pellagra
    a disease caused by a deficiency of niacin in the diet, characterized by skin changes, severe nerve dysfunction, mental symptoms, and diarrhea.
  22. gout
    • a form of acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints.
    • is different from other forms of arthritis because it occurs when there are high levels of uric acid circulating in the blood, which can cause urate crystals to settle in the tissues of the joints.
  23. The two forms of vitamin A are ___ and ___.
    • beta carotene: plant source
    • retinol: animal source
  24. Vitamin A
    Food sources:
    • Function: maintains epithelial tissues (skin and mucous membranes); rhodopsin formation for vision; bone growth; reproduction (hormonal affects)
    • Deficiency:xerophthalmia; night blindness, kratomalacia; degeneration of epithelial tissue--> respiratory and gastrointestinal disturbances; inhibited growth (lack of vit. A dependent proteins for bone growth)
    • Toxicity: blistered skin, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, enlarged spleen and liver
    • Food sources: deep green, yellow, and orange fruits and veggies; animal fat sources: whole milk, fortified skim, and low fat milk; butter; liver; egg yolks; fatty fish
  25. Vitamin D
    Food sources:
    • Function: calcium and phosphorus absorption; bone mineralization
    • Deficiency: bone malformation, rickets (in children), osteomalacia (adults)
    • Toxicity: hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria
    • Food sources: Animal fat sources: butter, egg yolks, fatty fish, liver, fortified milk, body synthesis (sunlight*)

    *reason why considered a hormone
  26. Rhodopsin
    • the purple pigmented compound in the rods of the retina, formed by a protein-opsin-and a derivative of vitamin A, retinal.
    • needed to be able to adjust to light variations
  27. Vitamin E
    Food sources:
    • Function: antioxidant for PUFA and vit. A in cell membranes from oxidative damage; antioxidant team with selenium and ascorbic acid
    • Deficiency: primary deficiecy rare; secondary deficiency (caused by fat absorption) neurologic disorders
    • Toxicity: none, but supplements contraindicated with anticoagulation drugs
    • Food sources: vegetable oil, whole grains, seeds, nuts, green leafy vegetables
  28. PUFA
    polyunsaturated fatty acid
  29. Vitamin K
    Food sources:
    • Function: cofactor in synthesis of blood clotting factors; protein formation
    • Deficiency: blood coagulation inhibited; hemorrhagic diseases
    • Toxicity: therapuetic vit. K (menadione form) reactions in neonates, causing hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia
    • Food sources: leafy green vegs, intestinal synthesis
  30. Calcium
    Food sources:
    Absorption Issues:
    • Function: bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; muscle contraction/relaxation; CNS; BP
    • Deficiency: reduced bone density osteoporosis
    • Toxicity: constipation; urinary stones reduced iron and zinc absorption
    • Food sources: milk (whole, low-fat, skim), milk-based products, green leafy vegetables, legumes
    • Absorption Issues: absorption based on need: Increased by vit. D, Decreased by binders, inactivity, coffee/tea
  31. Iron
    Food sources:
    Absorption Issues:
    • Function: distributes O2 in Hb and myoglobin; growth
    • Deficiency: microcytic anemia (children and women at risk)
    • Toxicity: hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis
    • Food sources: Heme souces: meat, fish poultry, egg yolks; Nonheme sources: vegetables, legumes, whole grains, enriched grains
    • Absorption Issues: conserved and recycled; absorption of 10-15% of dietary iron consumed
  32. hemosiderosis
    • an increased deposition of iron in a variety of tissues, usually in the form of hemosiderin and usually without tissue damage. It is often associated with diseases involving chronic, extensive destruction of red blood cells, such as thalassemia major
    • may be caused by hemochromatosis
    • bacteria thrive on excess iron circ. the blood
  33. hemochromatosis
    Hemochromatosis is an inherited blood disorder that causes the body to retain excessive amounts of iron. This iron overload can lead to serious health consequences, most notably cirrhosis of the liver.
  34. Iodine
    Food sources:
    Absorption Issues:
    • Function: thyroxine synthesis (thyroid hormone) regulates growth and development; BMR regulation
    • Deficiency: Decreases thyroxine causing sluggishness and weight gain, goiter, cretinism (if during pregnancy)
    • Toxicity: thyrotoxicosis
    • Food sources: iodized salt, seafood
    • Absorption Issues: n/a
  35. Any time the GI tract is used to provide nourishment, the feeding can be referred to as ___.
    enteral nutrition
  36. ___ are composed of intact nutrients that require a functioing GI tract for digestion and absorption of nutrients.
    standard-intact formulas
  37. Special formulas for tube feeding
    • Elemental formulas
    • Modular formulas
    • Specialty formulas
  38. elemental formula
    • predigested or hydrolyzed formula
    • patients with partially functioning GI tract, impaired capacity to digest foods or absorb nutrients, pancreatic insufficiency, bile salt deficiency
  39. modular formula
    • single macronutrients such as glucose polymers, proteins, or lipids
    • added to other foods
  40. specialty formula
    meet demands for specific diseases such as diabetes, renal failure, etc.
  41. Nasogastric (NG) feeding route
    tube extends from nose into stomach
  42. Nasoduodenal or nasojejunal
    • Nasoduodenal: tube extends from nose through pylorus into duodenum; tube must be advanced by peristalsis
    • Nasojejunal: tube extends from nose through pylorus into jejunum
  43. Gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
    • G-tube
    • gastrostomy: tube placed through incision in abdominal wall into stomach
    • PEG: tube percutaneously placed in stomach under endoscopic guidance, secured by rubber bumpers or inflated balloon catheter
  44. Jejunostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ)
    • J-tube
    • Jejunostomy: types include needle catheter placement, direct tube placement, and creatoion of jejunal stoma that is catherized intermittently
    • PEJ: weighted feeding tube from PEG insertion into duodenum, peristaltic action advances into jejunum
  45. Administration of Enteral Tube Feedings:
    • generally preferred method of feeding
    • uses an infusion pump
    • controlled delivery of formula at a constant rate over continous period
    • for patients:
    • who have not eaten for a significant period
    • debilitated patients
    • those with impaired GI function
    • patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus
    • intestinal feedings
  46. Administration of Enteral Tube Feedings:
    • for feedings that are infused at specific intervals through the day (total volume of feeding divided and given 4-6 times/day)
    • delivered by gravity
  47. Administration of Enteral Tube Feedings:
    • appropriate only for feeding into the stomach, involves feeding large volumes of formula intermittently over short periods, usually by syringe, also by gravity
  48. energy is
    the ability to do work
  49. energy comes in the form of ___.
  50. A ___ ___ is used to measure how many calories are in food.
    bomb calorimeter
  51. A bomb calorimeter measures the ___ that the food gives off during combustion.
  52. We maintain our ___ temperature because our bodies produce ___ by burning ___.
    • internal
    • heat
    • calories/energy
  53. ___ is an ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to ___.
    • Glycolysis
    • pyruvic acid
  54. The three macronutrients used for ATP
    Carbs, Proteins, Lipids
  55. Backward movement refers to
    nutrient/lipid storage--> weight gain
  56. ___ ___ of glycolysis means there is adequate O2 for ATP.
    Aerobic Process
  57. Anaerobic process for glycolysis produces ___ ___ instead of ___.
    • lactic acid
    • ATP
  58. How do you calculate the calories you need?
    weight in kg x 23
  59. 1 lb = ___ kg
    2.2 kg
  60. BMR
    Basal Metabolic Rate
  61. 4 Factors for BMR
    Weight, Height, Gender, Age + Activity
  62. TEF
    • Thermic Effect of Food
    • the energy required for our body to digest, absorb, metabolize, and store food. The increase of cellular activity caused by food.
  63. carb loading
    teaches the body to store glycogen by first using up all the glycogen stores (by not consuming carbs) then eating a ton of carbs before an endurance event. The body is supposed to hang on to it because it is afraid it will be deprived of it again.
  64. when should you practice protein recovery?
    after an endurance event, and not for normal exercise
  65. The term body image refers to the ___ that we have of our bodies.
  66. ___  is a disorder where the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features
    body dysmorphic disorder
  67. BMI
    • Body Mass Index
    • a measure of someone's weight in relation to height
    • to calculate one's BMI, multiply one's weight in pounds and divide that by the square of one's height in inches
  68. overweight is a BMI greater than ___; obese is a BMI greater than ___
    • 25
    • 30
  69. ___ ___ is the most accurate way to measure BMI because it measures one's ___.
    • water weight
    • density
  70. Steps in underwater weighing
    • The dry weight of the subject is first determined.
    • The subject, in minimal clothing, then sits on a specialized seat, expels all the air from their lungs, and is lowered into the tank until all body parts are emerged.
    • The person must remain motionless underwater while the underwater weight is recorded.
    • This procedure is repeated several times to get a dependable underwater weight measure.
    • You measure the amount of water displaced, difference b/w the original water level vs. water level after you got into the tank
  71. ABCD
    • Anthropometrics
    • Biochemical tests
    • Clinical observations
    • Diet evaluations
  72. Anthropometic assesment
    • measure height and weight, the head, and skinfold thickness
    • used to measure body composition changes or growth over time
  73. biomedical assessment
    • Many routine blood and urine lab tests
    • the most important biochemical parameters are visceral protein status and immune function
    • visceral proteins are assesed through serum albumim and prealbumin
    • immune is through total lymphocyte count TLC
  74. ___ assessment incorporates data from several sources: medical history, social history, and physical examination. Many environmental factors can affect nutritional status.
  75. Diet evalutations/ dietary intake assessment
    type of assessments that  provide information regarding intake of kcal, protein, CHO, fat, vitamins, minerals, and fluid.
  76. Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    consists of a cluster of medical and health care approaches, methods, and items not associtated with convential medicine.
  77. albumin has a turnover of ___-___ days
  78. prealbumin half-life is ___-___ days, so you could see if protein is being absorbed faster with prealbumin results.
  79. transferrin takes ___-___ days for protein status, low transferrin-->low ___-->anemia
    • 8-10
    • iron
  80. biochemical tests that tell alot about protein
    CBC--> RBCs(and size) WBC, MHC, MCV
  81. 5 dimensions of health
    • physical health
    • intellectual health, understanding
    • emotional health, depression, etc
    • social, status?
    • spiritual
Card Set
test on vitamins, minerals, energy