psych #1 -3rd

  1. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) a research idea can generate dozens of hypothesis depending on how...
    -it is translated into a statement of the problem

    -the variables are operationally defined
  2. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) in an experiment we are testing 3 hypothesis
    - null hypothesis

    -confounding variable hypothesis

    -causal hypothesis
  3. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) accept causal hypothesis only if you...(2)
    -reject null hypothesis

    -rule out each potential confounding variable hypothesis
  4. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) 4 types of validity



  5. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) how are Statistical validity strengthen by? (2)
    -using well validated measures

    -having an appropriate sample size
  6. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) How are statistical validity threatened by? (2)
    -unreliable measures

    • -violations of statistical assumptions
    • ex)null hypothesis
  7. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) Contruct validity
    the extent to which operationalization of the variables truly captures the contructs

    Q: Do our operationalizations of the independent and dependent variables capture the contruct of interest? 
  8. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) what threatens contruct valditiy?
    -any alternative explanation for the results
  9. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) what strengthens contruct validity?
    -using well-validated contructs to build the theoretical predictions for the study
  10. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) question for External validity
    Q: Do the results apply to other people and other situations?
  11. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) external validity threatened by?
    • -unrepresentative samples
    • *doesnt represent larger population

    -unrealistic tasks and procedures
  12. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) external validity strengthen by
    • -gathering a representative sample¬†
    • *if possible

    • *mundane realism
    • *psychological realism
  13. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) (external validity) Mundane realism
    • extent to which experiment is similar to real-life sitiation
    • *ex) person bumps into another person and cusses him out. someone is recording how he reacts
  14. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) (external validity) Psychological realism
    • extent to which psych processes triggered during an experiment are similar to those that occur everyday life
    • *things that people faec in the real world
  15. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) internal validity question
    Q: is the indepedent variable responsible fro the observed changes in the dependent variable?
  16. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) Internal validity threatened by
    • confounding variables: any variable that causes change in the dependent variable
    • *variables that we may not be aware of that may cause change
  17. (hypothesis testing and validity-1) Internal validity strengthen by..
    • adding adequate controls to reduce or eliminate confounding
    • ex)great experimental design
  18. (threats to validity) maturation
    -changes due to growth or predictable changes

    • -results can be attributed to time rather than the independent variable
    • ex) people get over anxiety or depression by adjusting to it
  19. (threats to validity) (maturation) 4 aspects in which changes happen



  20. (threats to validity) Instrumentation
    -any change in the calibration of the measuring instrument over the course of the study

    ex) get better at making measurements over time
  21. (threats to validity) Selection
    -any factor that creates groups that are not equal at the start of the study

    • ex) time of day
    • *studyign one group in night and another in morining
  22. (threats to validity) Statistical regression
    -tendency for participants selected because of extreme scores to be less extreme on a reset

    -extreme scores tend to shift to the average on future measurement occasions

    ex) CHOOSING students with very high scores, most likley they will fall towards average
  23. (threats to validity) Attrition
    • -loss of participants during a study
    • *participants who drop out different from those who contine?

    • ex) smoking cessation
    • *maybe program wanst working for them
  24. (threats to validity) diffusion of treatments
    • -changes in participants behavior due to information they obtained about other conditions
    • *contaminates other conditions

    ex) person is informed by friend what the experiment is about
  25. (threats to validity) testing effects
    repeated measurement of the same individual may impact persons subsequent scores

    • ex) memory
    • -they can just adjust to whatever test tehy are given
  26. (threats to validity) history
    -events that take place during the course of a research study that influence the outcome of the study

    ex) 911 event might have impacted experiments
  27. (subject and experimenter effects) (subject effects)Participants are not passive concept
    • -they try to understand the study to help them guide their behavior
    • *respond to subtle cues about what us expected
  28. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(participants are not passive) reactivity
    changes in the behavior of research participants as a result of their knowledge that they are part of a research project
  29. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(participants are not passive)(reactitivity) example of reactivity-hawthorne effect
    -when performance in an experiment is affected by knowledge by participants that they are in an experiment

    *in his experiment, workers produced more productivity when told they were being monitored
  30. (subject and experimenter effects) (subject effects)demand charateristics
    cues available to the participants that enable them to detect purpose of research, or what is expected of them by researcher

    • *setting
    • *instruction
    • *expression on experimenters face
  31. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(demand characteristics) 4 different types of subject roles
    -good subjects

    -negativistic subjects

    -apprehensive subjects

    -faithful subjects
  32. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(demand characterisitics)(subject roles) Good subjects
    -do what they think researcher wants
  33. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(demand characteristics)(subject roles) Negativistic subjects
    do the opposite of what they think the researcher wants
  34. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(demand characterisitcs)(subject roles) Apprehensive subjects
    -behaves in what they think is a socially desirable manner
  35. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects)(subject effects)(demand characteristics)(subject roles) Faithful subjects
    honest behavior

    • *this is what we wnat them to do
    • **we need to create an environment to promote faithful behavior
  36. (subject and experimenter effects)(subject effects) placebo effects
    -people show physiological changes from suggestion that such changes could take place

    ex)tension headaches cured by placebos
  37. (subject and experimenter effects)(experiment effects) Scientists tipping their "hat off" (3)
    • -based on the expectations of the researcher
    • *ideally zero

    -affects the outcome of studies if not controlled

    -may be due to experimenter providing demand characteristics to participant
  38. (subject and experimenter effects)( experiment effects) biased data collections
    • inter-rater reliability
    • *measure that captures degree to which observers agree
    • **not all observers will agree with one score or assumption

    -errors in data usually favor hypothesis
  39. (subject and experimenter effects)(experiment effects) biased interactions with participants
    • -self-fulfilling prophecy
    • *make smart rats experiemtn
Card Set
psych #1 -3rd
hypothesis testing and validity; threats to validity;subject and experimenter effects