Psychology Chapter 12

  1. Learning
    a change in behavior due to experience
  2. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • classical conditioning
    • dog drool experiment
  3. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus triggers a response after being paired with another stimulus that naturally triggers that response
  4. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
    the unlearned, automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
  5. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
    a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response
  6. Conditioned Response (CR)
    the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  7. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    a previously neutral stimulus that after repeated parings with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to bring about a conditioned response
  8. Extinction
    the gradual weakening and disappearance of the conditioned response
  9. Spontaneous Recovery
    the reappearance of a response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
  10. Stimulus Generalization
    the tendency for conditioned response to be triggered by stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus
  11. Stimulus Discrimination
    the tendency for a conditioned response to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus but  not to the stimuli similar to it
  12. Classical Conditioning in Everyday Behavior
    • Little Albert
    • Car Accidents
    • Food Poisoning
    • Taste Aversion  (John Garcia and Robert Koelling)
  13. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Rat Box
  14. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and weakend if followed by punishment
  15. Reinforcement
    the process by which a stimulus increases the probability of the behavior that it follows
  16. Primary Reinforcer
    naturally reinforcing because is satisfys some biological need i.e. food
  17. Secondary Reinforcer
    learned and becomes reinforcing by being associated with primary reinforcers i.e. money
  18. Positive Reinforcer
    strengthens a response
  19. Negative Reinforcer
    • strengthens a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response
    • you remove something from the environment
    • i.e. you avoid cold by going inside
  20. Reinforcer
    a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior it follows will be repeated
  21. Punishment
    the process by which a stimulus decreases the probability of the behavior it follows
  22. Positive Punisher
    • weakens a response by presenting an unpleasant stimulus after a response
    • reducing behavior
  23. Negative Punisher
    • weakens a response by removing a positive stimulus after a response
    • i.e. grounding for bad behavior
  24. Disadvantages of Punishment
    • prompt: punishment must happen right away
    • relatively strong: so its unpleasant qualities are felt by offending person
    • consistently applied: person knows that punishment will likely follow future unwanted actions
    • time out: ignore bad and reinforce good behavior
  25. Positive Reinforcement
    ex. telling more jokes after people laugh at your first joke
  26. Positive Punishment
    ex. telling no more jokes after people groan at your first joke
  27. Negative Reinforcement
    ex. learning to rub a sore muscle to relieve pain
  28. Negative Punishment
    ex. your parents taking away your cell phone after you get failing grades in school
  29. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
    a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer
  30. Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
    a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces behavior after a certain number of responses
  31. Variable-Ratio Reinforcement Schedule
    a partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
  32. Fixed-Interval Reinforcement Schedule
    when reinforcement occurs for the first response after a fixed time interval has elapsed
  33. Variable-Interval Reinforcement Schedule
    a schedule that reinforces the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
  34. Shaping
    the process of teaching a new behavior by reinforceing closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior
  35. How to Shape Behavior
    • 1. identify what the respondent can do now
    • 2. identify the desired behavior
    • 3. identify potential reinforcers in the respondent's      environment
    • 4. break the desired behavior into small substeps to be mastered squentially
    • 5. move the respondent from the entry behavior to the desired behavior by successively reinforcing each approximation to the desired behavior
  36. Edward Tolman
    • learning without reinforcement
    • latent learning
  37. Latent Learning
    learning that occurs without any reinforcement but is not demonstrated until reinforment is provided
  38. Observational Learning
    learning by observing and deciding what to imitate in the behavior of others
  39. Social Learning Theory
    when people learn soceal behaviors mainly through observation and cognitive processing of information rather than through direct experience
  40. Observational Learning Of Aggressiong
    • family, culture, and media
    • violence in music videos and video gaming
    • reducing aggression through positive role models
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 12
psych ch 12