Lab Quiz 6

  1. Larynx (“voice box”)
    Shiny, white

    Provides passageway between the pharynx n trachea
  2. Trachea
    • Rings of cartilage. Lined air tube.
    • underneath the larynx

    • Air travels to the lungs
    • Connects mouth to lungs
  3. Esophagus
    Underneath the trachea.Tube running from the throat to the stomach.

    • Serves to carry food from the mouth to the stomach.
  4. Thymus gland
    • Flap
    • Next to the larynx on both sides

    Site of the maturation of T-lymphocytes (“T-cells”)

    T-cells are a component of the immune system’ they aid in the destruction of pathogens (bacteria and viruses)

    Regulates and stimulates the immune system
  5. Thyroid gland
    Tiny ball 

    Produces and secretes two different hormones. Thyroxine and calcitonin.

    • -thyroxine helps to control metabolic rate
    • -calcitonin facilitates the deposition of calcium into the bones
  6. Skeletal muscle tissue
    Stuff we eat

    Bring movement of the various bones of the skeleton.
  7. Mesenteries
    • Are very thin and translucent membranes (epithelial and connective tissue) 

    Help keep organs in place and also serve as a barrier to pathogens

    The pericardium and the peritoneum
  8. Peritoneum
    Shyny, glistening membranes

    Inside of the body wall of abdominal cavity

    • -It lines the entire abdominal cavity
    • -it serves as a barrier to pathogens

    One of the primary “mesenteries” of the body
  9. Umbilical vein

    Brings oxygenated blood to the fetus from placenta
  10. Liver
    Largest organ 

    • -production of bile (it’s stored in the gall bladder after being produced by the liver)
    • -conversion of excess glucose (just after absorbing it into the blood) into glycogen in order to store it
    • -Conversion of glycogen back into glucose when blood glucose levels fall (hours after a meal)
    • -Production of various blood enzymes, clotting factors, etc, e.g., fibrinogen, thrombin, and albumin
    • -Breakdown of various poisons and contaminants such as: Nicotine, THC, alcohol, acetaminophen (Tylenol), Ibuprofen (Advil)

    Has more function than any other organ in the body
  11. Gall bladder

     Aids digestion and stores bile from liver
  12. Stomach
    Big. under diaphragm

    • -Stores the food until it is ready to be digested in the duodenum.
    • -Site of the initial breakdown of protein (using an enzyme-a protease-called pepsin)
  13. Pyloric sphincter
    Hard part. A valve under stomach

    A valve that controls the rate at which chime moves from the stomach to the duodenum.

    Moves food from stomach to intestines
  14. Duodenum
    Tube connected to stomach 

     Enzymatic (chemical) breakdown (catabolism) of food

    First part of small intestine
  15. Ilium
    Very long (bundle up) 

    • Absorption of nutrients

    Last part of small intestine
  16. Cecum
    Harbors various species of bacteria, some of which are mutualistic and some of which are commensalistic

    First chamber of the large intestine
  17. Appendix
    nexto to cecum. Bottom of ilium.

    In pigs, it harbors bacteria that break down cellulose using the enzyme cellulase (this is true of many mammals, inc. many primates)

    May be vestigial in humans
  18. Coiled colon

    Harbors many species of beneficial bacteria(some of which produce particular vitamins for us, such as vitamin K and some of the B vitamins)_

    Final site of water absorption
  19. Spleen
    Tongue shape 

    •   -Serves as a reservoir for about 25% of the blood at any one time.
    • -has lots of white blood cells(leucocytes) of various types and thereby:
    • -fights pathogens
    • -recycles worn-out red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • Regulates RBC, helps immune system

    • -can be put into the circulatory system vessels when blood pressure drops dramatically such as in an accident.
    • -the WBC’s phagocytize them
  20. Pancreas
    Cottage cheese texture 

    •   -produces most of the digestive enzymes and sends them through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum-exo.
    • -produces sodium bicarbonate (a base) and sends it through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum in order to raise the PH of the chime coming from the acidic stomach (PH 1-2) up to about PH 8.-exo
    • -produces insulin and secretes it into the blood in order to control blood glucose levels-endo
    • -Secretes hormones and proteins

    Exocrite and endocrine functions
  21. Urinary bladder
    Hollow, expandable, muscular organ

    In the pelvic girdle

    Functions as the temporary reservoir for urine
  22. Umbilical arteries (two of them)
    Along the urinary bladder

    brings de-oxygenated blood from the fetus
  23. Rectum
    Holds the feces until “elimination”(fancy word for defecation)
Card Set
Lab Quiz 6