Larynx (“voice box”)
Provides passageway between the pharynx n trachea
- Rings of cartilage. Lined air tube.
- underneath the larynx
- Air travels to the lungs
- Connects mouth to lungs
Underneath the trachea.Tube running from the throat to the stomach.
- Serves to carry food from the mouth to the stomach.
- Next to the larynx on both sides
Site of the maturation of T-lymphocytes (“T-cells”)
T-cells are a component of the immune system’ they aid in the destruction of pathogens (bacteria and viruses)
Regulates and stimulates the immune system
Produces and secretes two different hormones. Thyroxine and calcitonin.
- -thyroxine helps to control metabolic rate
- -calcitonin facilitates the deposition of calcium into the bones
Skeletal muscle tissue
Stuff we eat
Bring movement of the various bones of the skeleton.
- Are very thin and translucent membranes (epithelial and connective tissue)
Help keep organs in place and also serve as a barrier to pathogens
The pericardium and the peritoneum
Shyny, glistening membranes
Inside of the body wall of abdominal cavity
- -It lines the entire abdominal cavity
- -it serves as a barrier to pathogens
One of the primary “mesenteries” of the body
Brings oxygenated blood to the fetus from placenta
- -production of bile (it’s stored in the gall bladder after being produced by the liver)
- -conversion of excess glucose (just after absorbing it into the blood) into glycogen in order to store it
- -Conversion of glycogen back into glucose when blood glucose levels fall (hours after a meal)
- -Production of various blood enzymes, clotting factors, etc, e.g., fibrinogen, thrombin, and albumin
- -Breakdown of various poisons and contaminants such as: Nicotine, THC, alcohol, acetaminophen (Tylenol), Ibuprofen (Advil)
Has more function than any other organ in the body
Aids digestion and stores bile from liver
Big. under diaphragm
- -Stores the food until it is ready to be digested in the duodenum.
- -Site of the initial breakdown of protein (using an enzyme-a protease-called pepsin)
Hard part. A valve under stomach
A valve that controls the rate at which chime moves from the stomach to the duodenum.
Moves food from stomach to intestines
Tube connected to stomach
Enzymatic (chemical) breakdown (catabolism) of food
First part of small intestine
Very long (bundle up)
Last part of small intestine
Harbors various species of bacteria, some of which are mutualistic and some of which are commensalistic
First chamber of the large intestine
nexto to cecum. Bottom of ilium.
In pigs, it harbors bacteria that break down cellulose using the enzyme cellulase (this is true of many mammals, inc. many primates)
May be vestigial in humans
Harbors many species of beneficial bacteria(some of which produce particular vitamins for us, such as vitamin K and some of the B vitamins)_
Final site of water absorption
- -Serves as a reservoir for about 25% of the blood at any one time.
- -has lots of white blood cells(leucocytes) of various types and thereby:
- -fights pathogens
- -recycles worn-out red blood cells (erythrocytes)
- Regulates RBC, helps immune system
- -can be put into the circulatory system vessels when blood pressure drops dramatically such as in an accident.
- -the WBC’s phagocytize them
Cottage cheese texture
- -produces most of the digestive enzymes and sends them through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum-exo.
- -produces sodium bicarbonate (a base) and sends it through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum in order to raise the PH of the chime coming from the acidic stomach (PH 1-2) up to about PH 8.-exo
- -produces insulin and secretes it into the blood in order to control blood glucose levels-endo
- -Secretes hormones and proteins
Exocrite and endocrine functions
Hollow, expandable, muscular organ
In the pelvic girdle
Functions as the temporary reservoir for urine
Umbilical arteries (two of them)
Along the urinary bladder
brings de-oxygenated blood from the fetus
Holds the feces until “elimination”(fancy word for defecation)