1. What is FGF responsible for
    • Angiogenesis
    • Embryonic development
    • Hematopoiesis
    • wound repair (recruitment)
  2. Streptomycin MOA
    Binds 30S ribosomal subunit and inhibits initiation complex
  3. Alcohol and gallstones can lead to what
    acute pancreatitis
  4. What are the subcutaneous neurofibromas of NF1
    They are schwann cells which are derived from neural crest cells
  5. Burkitts lymphoma gene
    8:14 translocation -> c-myc - transcription activation
  6. Global ischemia of the brain affects what first
    Pyramidal cells of hippocampus

    • then pyramidal cells of neocortex
    • purkinje cells of cerebellum
  7. Classical galactosemia = what type of inheritance
    Autosomal recesive
  8. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome treatment
    HLA matching bone marrow transplant
  9. Why is there increased expiratory flow rate with restrictive lung disease
    Increased elastic recoil and increased radial traction on the conducting airways
  10. SIADH leads to
    Euvolemic hyponatremia
  11. P bodies
    Regulate mRNA
  12. Intrapartum antibiotic for Group B strep
  13. Lung adenocarcinoma
    • Peripheral involvement
    • More common in women and nonsmokers
  14. Solid retroperitneal structures
    • Pancreas
    • kidney
    • adrenal glands
  15. Tryptase
    Released from mast cells in anaphylaxis
  16. What stimulates mast cell degranulation
    IgE accumulation
  17. AIDS most common brain lesion
    primary cell lymphoma from B cells (EBV)
  18. Otitis externa in diabetic
    • P. aeruginosa
    • nonlactose fermenting, oxidase + motile gram negative
  19. HAV decontamination
    • Chlorination
    • bleach
    • formalin
    • UV irradiation
    • boiling
  20. Cauda Equina syndrome
    • Low back pain that goes to legs
    • saddle anesthesia
    • loss of anocutaneous reflex
    • bowel/bladder dysfunction
    • no ankle jerk relfex
    • (S2-S4)
  21. Foscarnet side effects
    • Renal wasting of magnesium
    • decreased PTH stimulation -> dec calcium

    both contribute to seizures
  22. Phenelzine
    irreversible inhibitor of MAO A and B
  23. High blood gas partition coefficient
    • Slower onset
    • higher potency
  24. Thiopental quick action
    redistribution to the fat and muscle
  25. Cyprheptadine
    5HT receptor antagonist
  26. Inhaled anesthetic with high arteriovenous gradient
    High solubility -> slow onset
  27. Papillary necrosis
    • Caused by Ischemia:
    • Sickle cell disease of trait
    • Diabetes
    • Acute pyelonephritis
    • analgesics (Phenacetin)
  28. Dofetilide
    Class 3 (K+ ) antiarrhythmic
  29. Fenoldapam
    • Activates adenyly cyclase -> increased cAMP --> vasodilation -> dec systemic resistance
    • Good perfusion for the kidney
  30. Neurofibromatosis
    • Cafe au-lait spots
    • multiple neurofibromas
    • lisch nodules
  31. Prostacyclin
    From endothelium

    • vasodilates
    • inhibits platelet aggregation
    • increase vascular permeability
  32. Pineal germinomas
    • Precocious puberty (BhCG)
    • obstructive hydrocephalus
    • Parinaud syndrome
  33. Patient presents with postpartum blues what to do
    See them in 2 weeks because this is when postpartum depression can be diagnosed and treated
  34. Fibrates and fertile on cholesterol gallstones
    • Estrogen increases HMG CoA reductase -> more cholesterol
    • Fibrates decrease 7a hydroxylase

    both lead to cholesterol gallstones
  35. Acute viral hepatitis histo
    • ballooning degeneration
    • hepatocyte necrosis
    • portal inflammation
  36. Silicosis characteristics
    • Eggshell calcification of hilar nodes
    • birefringent silica particles surrounded by fibrous tissue
  37. Haloperidol S/E
    high potency anti-psychotic -> nigrostriatal pathway inhibition of dopamine -> affects skeletal muscle tone
  38. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma Histo
    Tall columnar cells that line alveolar septa without invasion
  39. Cancers that release hypercoagulable products ->
    • Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
    • Trousseau syndrome
  40. A positive VDRL and pleocytosis is significant of what?
    Neurpsyphillis with Gummaas
  41. What bacteria can undergo transformation
    • S. pneumo
    • H. influenza
    • N, meningitidis
  42. How would an infant with hydrocephalus present?
    • irritability
    • poor feeding
    • muscle tonicity
    • hyperreflexia
  43. How is the work of breathing decreased in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis
    They have increased elastic resistance so work of breathing is decreased by taking shallow rapid breaths
  44. Burkitt Lymphoma (8:14) is
    c-myc = transcription factor
  45. Presentation of rabies encephalitis
    reslessness, agitation and dysphagia which later on leads to coma
  46. Bells palsy are expected to have what ear codition
    hyperacusis because CN VII innervates the stapedius muscle
  47. How does Crohns disease lead to kidney stones
    Ca binds lipid in the intestine -> increase absorption of oxalate by the gut =-> stones in the kidney
  48. What is the result of duodenal S cell
    • They secrete secretin ->
    • increase bicarbonate
    • decrease Cl-
  49. Why should you not do a biopsy of hemangioma
    • Risk of fatal hemorrhage
    • low d potential
  50. What are long duration benzos
    • chlordiazaepoxide
    • clorazepide
    • diazepam
    • Flurazepam
  51. Blastomycosis causes what
    • Pulmonary disease in the immunocompetent
    • Disseminated mycosis in immunocompromised patients
  52. How does TCA cause cardiac arrhythmia
    The inhibit fast Na channels  of cardiac myocytes -> cardiac arrhythmia
  53. What is Pompes
    Alpha glucosidase deficiency that leads to accumulation of glycogen into lysosomes
  54. Amitryptiline side effect when used for diabetic neuropathy
    blocks Ach receptor -> Hyperthermia, flushing, urinary retention
  55. Vitamin B 6 and dopamine
    V B6 is needed for decarboxylase reactions so leads to peripheral breakdown of L-dopa
  56. Digoxin toxicity
    • Fatigue
    • Blurry vision
    • change in color perception
    • N/V/D abdominal pain
    • confusion
    • delirium

  57. Atheroembolic Renal disease
    cholesterol emboli obstructing renal arterioles
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