Development of Modernist Art (part 1)

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    • Stone Breakers
    • Artist: Courbet
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • portrayed the lowest in French society
    • menial labor is neither romanticized nor idealized
    • dirty brown and grays convey the dirty nature of the tasks
    • sharp angles created in bodies - suggests mechanical monotomy
    • painted the year before workers rebelled against republic for reform of working conditions
    • Revolution of 1848 - labor became a national concern and puts the workers on center stage
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    • Burial at Ornans
    • Artist: Courbet
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • anti-heroic composition and ordinary subject matter
    • autobiographical - death of the artist's paternal grandfather
    • church fathers and leaders of the village are present
    • exact view from cemetery at Ornans
    • figures in groupings
    • creates movement through:
    •    - panoramic view
    •    - use of white
    •    - groupings of figures that create an undulating line
    • women are doll-like with dark colors
    • sparing bright colors
    • walls of figures seen at eye level - blocks view of what is behind them
    • barren cliffs and overcast sky highlights focus towards ground
    • faces are specific portraits
    • artist controls composition through color
    • mundane reality of life and death
    • "represents a small town funeral, yet represents the funerals of all small towns" - critic
    • ordinary rhythms of everyday life
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    • Gleaners
    • Artist: Millet
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • considered to be the rural counter part to Courbet
    • three women preforming the backbreaking work of gleaning the last wheat scraps
    • feudal right traditionally granted to peasants
    • clearly outlined figures that are projected forward from background by the high horizon line
    • figures are almost individual sculptures
    • open, vast sky that stretches back so far to help project the women forward
    • other workers in background - disproportionately small
    • 3/4 landscape shows dominance of land- workers have realistic truth and a calm mood
    • sympathetic portrayal of poor that was sometimes considered a political manifesto
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    • Harbor of La Rochelle
    • Artist: Corot
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • Classical structure to it
    • cloudless, airless dimension
    • diluting the drama and the color tones of Romantic era
    • soft, quiet
    • careful gradation of tone
    • filtered light from outside the picture frame and casts soft, long shadows
    • filtered light dances across the picture frame
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    • Rue Transnonian
    • Artist: Daumier
    • Era: 19th century Realsim
    • Techniques:
    • depicts an atrocity with the same shock as Goya's Third of May
    • broken, scattered bodies
    • increasing artistic bias towards using facts as subjects
    • rough and spontaneous - pictorial manner
    • expressive exaggeration which creates a more dramatic impact
    • small piece
    • baby under his arm
    • street in Lion - unknown sniper killed a civil guard who went to try to suppress the a labor riot - remaining civil guard storm the building (housed working families) where the sniper was and killed everyone inside, including women and children
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    • Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art
    • Artist: Daumier
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • portrays struggle of getting photography recognized as a fine art
    • court decision that said that art was a fine art so that they could protect it with copyrights
    • Nadar is energetically taking pictures in a balloon over Paris with roop tops labeled "photography"
    • Nadar was a staunch advocate of balloon transportation and produced the first aerial photos of Paris in his balloon called the Giant
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    • Third-Class Carriage
    • Artist: Daumier
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • glimpse into a cramped a grimy railway carriage of the 1860s
    • hard wooden benches
    • displaced 19th century industrial people in unposed attitudes and unplanned arrangements - candid shots
    • anonymous, insignificant, and dumbly patient with a situation that they couldn't change
    • vague, impersonal, and blank faces
    • tries to achieve realism by isolating some unplanned details to emphasize the monotony of everyday light
    • some people in back have undetailed faces
    • women in foreground are dignified
    • effects of industrialization
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    • Olympia
    • Artist: Manet
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • Olympia was a popular name for prostitutes back then
    • white bed extends across foreground - reminiscent of the Venus of Urbino by Titian
    • nude except for ribbon on neck, bracelet, mule slippers, and orchid in hair
    • meets the viewer's eye with a look of cool indifference, shameless, almost defiant
    • black maid presents her with a bouquet of flowers from one of her clients
    • combination of a black made and a nude prostitute evoke moral depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality
    • contrast of skins made reference to racial divisions
    • rougher brushstrokes
    • abrupt shifts in tone
    • black cat alludes to evil ways of both women - depravity
    • similar to Venus of Urbino
    •    - use of white sheets but rougher lower class sheets
    •    - wall pushes her forward
    •    - wall divides women
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    • Le Dejeuner sur L'Herbe
    • Artist: Manet
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • heroism of modern life
    • one is Manet's brother and the other is his favorite sculptor Leenhof and the woman is Meurend is his favorite model
    • unidealized figures, at ease
    • flirtatious pose that appalled the gov't sponsored salons
    • throw back to Gorgione
    • still-life, landscape, and figuration
    • people = land
    • color and light bind them
    • light is so even that it flattens everything
    • figures don't have mass or volume
    • captures tones and values
    • originally titled "The Bath"
    • back section has a softer focus, broadly painted planes, and is more blended
    • harshly lit figures in foreground
    • paints in still-life in cloth and basket and the figures are the part of it
    • synthesis of the history of painting - portraiture, pastoral scenes, history painting, nudes, and religious scenes
    • triangular composition alludes to holy trinity
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    • Nymphs and Satyr
    • Artist: Bouguerreau
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • flirtatious, idealized, beautiful nyphs striking various poses blending them into the background
    • naturalistic in manner
    • didn't like being labelled as realist
    • focused on people
    • made to look like real people
    • it was accepted to see nudes when they are mythical subjects
    • highly requested artist
    • lighting makes everything seem as though the figures are glowing - makes it look fictional
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    • Horse Fair
    • Artist: Bonheur
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • reminiscent of Burial at Ornanz
    • movement in animals
    • uneven line almost hidden by the activity of the horse
    • influenced by Parthenon's frieze and Gericault:
    •    - dramatic lighting
    •    - loose brushwork
    •    - rolling sky
    • wildness, vibrancy, and liveliness to the work
    • reproduced it in engravings making it extremely popular
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    • Veteran in a New Field
    • Artist: Homer
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • simple, direct, and significant commentary on the effects and aftermath of the Civil War
    • man with his back to the viewer harvesting wheat
    • veteran clear from uniform and canteen and title
    • gone from harvesting men to harvesting wheat
    • national concern of disbanded soldiers - veterans concern was how to smoothly transition from time of war to a time of peace
    • America's ability to affect a smooth transition
    • comments symbolically about death (soldiers and Lincoln)
    • farmers used a cradled scythe to harvest wheat by 1860s
    • one tool transformed veteran into a symbol of death - grim reaper
    • painting is a ellagy to soldiers who died in war and lamentation of recently assassinated president
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    • Fox Hunt
    • Artist: Homer
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • whom is hunting whom?
    • fox being hunted by crows
    • winter scene with deep snow making fox's movement slower
    • everyone is looking for something to eat
    • harsh outline of fox against snow - ligthing
    • Romantic because of violence in nature
    • 3/4 landscape
    • high horizon line pushes fox to foreground
    • warm colors in foxes coat contrasts to rest of piece
    • survival of the fittest
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    • Gross Clinic
    • Artist: Eakins
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • named after doctor Gross in Jefferson medical center
    • lecturing on a surgery - bone infection
    • softened brushstrokes like Rembrandt
    • rejected by Philadelphia exhibition
    • two people standing in doorway
    • harsh lighting focuses the viewer's attention
    • fifty-fifty composition
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    • Horse Galloping
    • Artist: Muybridge
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • callpotype print
    • bet to prove that in stride horses legs are all off the ground
    • zoopraxiscope - projects a sequence of images onto the screen - illusion of motion
    • begins realism of cinema
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    • Daughters of Edward Darley Boit
    • Artist: Sargeant
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • different levels of trust and maturity
    • story of coming of age, emotional development of a young woman
    • foreground is youngest with innocent expression
    • next daughter is behind her
    • third one is pulled back
    • fourth on has side to viewer in total defiance
    • ecentric arrangement of slight figures to suggest how much at ease they are
    • Japanese vases, red screen, and fringed rug are huge in scale making the girls more diminuitive
    • picture frame cuts off objects
    • casual positioning of figures
    • alluding to the concept of photography and the candid shot
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    • The Thankful Poor
    • Artist: Tanner
    • Era: 19th century Realism
    • Techniques:
    • quiet devotion similar to Millet's work in terms of mood
    • Rembrandt's soft circular brushstrokes and lighting
    • extended families all living under one roof
    • dignity, peace, and tenderness
    • softer light
    • lighter strokes
    • light dissolve details
    • golden light illuminates child's expression
    • its much more important to learn for the younger generation
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    • Ophelia
    • Artist: Millais
    • Era: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
    • Techniques:
    • based on Shakespeeare's Hamlet
    • captures the moment of her suicide
    • creates every detail as if it is a word in a poem
    • setting is a spot along a real river
    • had his friend lie in a bathtub to capture the realism
    • realism evokes emotion
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    • Beata Beatrix
    • Artist: Rossetti
    • Era: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
    • Techniques:
    • spiritual beauty of women
    • from the work of Dante
    • looking down on Florence from Heaven
    • painted as a memorial to his wife, Elizabeth Siddal, model for Ophelia
    • trance-like state
    • red dove deposits a poppy flower in her hands
    • red dove is a messenger of love and death
    • poppy is symbolic of sleep and death
    • Siddal died of an opium overdose
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    • Blessed Art Thou Among Women
    • Artist: Kaisebier
    • Era: Pre-Rahpaelite Brotherhood
    • Techniques:
    • photograph
    • platinum print on Japanese tissue paper
    • meditative mood through soft focus of lense
    • center figures and vertically framing them in the doorway
    • frontaly posed girl with profile woman
    • parallel biblical picture of the Annunciation - encouraging child to be coming something more
    • clothes contrast
    • girl seems real but the mother isn't present, alludes to spirit
Card Set
Development of Modernist Art (part 1)
19th century Realism and Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood