a BP measuring device that works by using air pressure on a thin metal plate rather than a column of mercury
state of having a sustained abnormally high BP
state of having a sustained abnormally low BP
Define pressure gradient.
difference in pressure between two chambers or systems; in BP it is the difference between the arterial and venous side of the capillary bed
Define pulse pressure.
the difference between the SBP and the DBP; if the difference is great, the pulses feel bounding; if the idfference is small, the pulses feel weak
Define QRS complex.
the portion of the electrocardiogram that represents the electrical depolarization of the ventricles, leading to ejection of blood; these wave forms allow the P wave, which indicates atrial depolarization
What are the two components of cardiac output?
HR x SV
What is the formula for blood pressure?
(HR x SV) x SVR
What is SVR?
systemic vascular resistance - size of vessels
What are the different types of duration for the body's response to blood pressure?
rapid - responding short - duration system
slower - responding long-duration system
What is part of the rapid-responding short-duration system?
HR and SVR
What is part of the slower - responding long-duration system?
How can the body increase stroke volume?
conserve fluid (water)
What is the primary organ that contributes to SV?
What are the indications for blood pressure measurement?
screening geriatric patients
screening all hospitalized patiens as part of minimum baseline data
maintaining patients receiving cardiac meds
monitoring patients with known risk factors
monitoring intenseive care patients
assessing emergency cases
therapeutic monitoring of patients on cardiac medication
therapeutic assessment in patients with hypertension
monitoring under anesthesia
What is the formula for pulse pressure?
SBP - DBP
Does normal pulse equal normal blood pressure?
What are the two methods of blood pressure?
Which form of blood pressure monitoring are better?
Do we do direct methods of blood pressure monitoring in a small animal practice?
no, not practical...its hard to get an arterial line
What are the different types of indirect blood pressure monitorings?
doppler sphygmomanometric method
Which of the 3 different types of indirect blood pressure monitorings is the least practical for practice?
Which type of indirect blood pressure monitoring do we mostly use in practice?
How does the doppler method work?
position the crystal over the artery and then place the cuff around the crystal
the first audible instance of the flow signals returning corresponds with the SBP
The oscillometric method provides an accurate assessment of the ____ and ____ but somewhat underestimates the _____.
What parts of the body can we use to place the blood pressure cuff?
Where on the forelimbs can we place the cuff?
proximal to the carpus
Where on the hindlimb can we place the cuff?
proximal or distal to the tarsus
What will happen if we use a cuff that is too big?
can underestimate the blood pressure
What will happen if the cuff is too small?
can give falsely high readings
How do we pick the size of the blood pressure cuff for dogs? Cats?
dogs: cuff width should be 40% of the limb circumference
cats: a cuff size of 30% of limb circumference
What is the normal range of blood pressure for cats?
120 to 140 mmHg systolic
70 to 90 mmHg diastolic
What is the normal range of blood pressure for dogs?
average 133 mmHg systolic
average 75 mmHg diastolic
mean of 95 mmHg
When do we consider hypotension serious?
when the mean BP is less than 60 mmHg
Are we mainly concerned with hypertension or hypotension?
What is considered hypotension?
MAP <70 for dogs and <80 for cats
What is considered hypertension?
MAP >120 for dogs and cats
What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too wide?
gives us a falsely low reading
What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too small or narrow?
gives us a falsely high reading
What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too loose?
can give use a falsely elevated reading
What can happen if we place our cuff over a joint?