Blood Pressure

  1. What is the formula to figure out the MAP?
    (SBP - DBP)/3 + DBP
  2. Define aneroid manometer.
    a BP measuring device that works by using air pressure on a thin metal plate rather than a column of mercury
  3. Define hypertension.
    state of having a sustained abnormally high BP
  4. Define hypotension.
    state of having a sustained abnormally low BP
  5. Define pressure gradient.
    difference in pressure between two chambers or systems; in BP it is the difference between the arterial and venous side of the capillary bed
  6. Define pulse pressure.
    the difference between the SBP and the DBP; if the difference is great, the pulses feel bounding; if the idfference is small, the pulses feel weak
  7. Define QRS complex.
    the portion of the electrocardiogram that represents the electrical depolarization of the ventricles, leading to ejection of blood; these wave forms allow the P wave, which indicates atrial depolarization
  8. What are the two components of cardiac output?
    HR x SV
  9. What is the formula for blood pressure?
    (HR x SV) x SVR
  10. What is SVR?
    systemic vascular resistance - size of vessels
  11. What are the different types of duration for the body's response  to blood pressure?
    • rapid - responding short - duration system
    • slower - responding long-duration system
  12. What is part of the rapid-responding short-duration system?
    HR and SVR
  13. What is part of the slower - responding long-duration system?
  14. How can the body increase stroke volume?
    • conserve fluid (water)
    • endurance training
  15. What is the primary organ that contributes to SV?
  16. What are the indications for blood pressure measurement?
    • screening geriatric patients
    • screening all hospitalized patiens as part of minimum baseline data
    • maintaining patients receiving cardiac meds
    • monitoring patients with known risk factors
    • monitoring intenseive care patients
    • assessing emergency cases
    • perioperative monitoring
    • postoperative monitoring
    • therapeutic monitoring of patients on cardiac medication
    • therapeutic assessment in patients with hypertension
    • monitoring under anesthesia
  17. What is the formula for pulse pressure?
    SBP - DBP
  18. Does normal pulse equal normal blood pressure?
  19. What are the two methods of blood pressure?
    • direct methods
    • indirect methods
  20. Which form of blood pressure monitoring are better?
    direct method
  21. Do we do direct methods of blood pressure monitoring in a small animal practice?
    no, not practical...its hard to get an arterial line
  22. What are the different types of indirect blood pressure monitorings?
    • doppler sphygmomanometric method
    • oscillometric systems
    • photoplethysmographic method
  23. Which of the 3 different types of indirect blood pressure monitorings is the least practical for practice?
    photoplethysmographic method
  24. Which type of indirect blood pressure monitoring do we mostly use in practice?
    oscillometric systems
  25. How does the doppler method work?
    • position the crystal over the artery and then place the cuff around the crystal
    • the first audible instance of the flow signals returning corresponds with the SBP
  26. The oscillometric method provides an accurate assessment of the ____ and ____ but somewhat underestimates the _____.
    • DBP
    • MAP
    • SBP
  27. What parts of the body can we use to place the blood pressure cuff?
    • forelimbs
    • tail
    • hindlimbs
  28. Where on the forelimbs can we place the cuff?
    proximal to the carpus
  29. Where on the hindlimb can we place the cuff?
    proximal or distal to the tarsus
  30. What will happen if we use a cuff that is too big?
    can underestimate the blood pressure
  31. What will happen if the cuff is too small?
    can give falsely high readings
  32. How do we pick the size of the blood pressure cuff for dogs?  Cats?
    • dogs:  cuff width should be 40% of the limb circumference
    • cats:  a cuff size of 30% of limb circumference
  33. What is the normal range of blood pressure for cats?
    • 120 to 140 mmHg systolic
    • 70 to 90 mmHg diastolic
  34. What is the normal range of blood pressure for dogs?
    • average 133 mmHg systolic
    • average 75 mmHg diastolic
    • mean of 95 mmHg
  35. When do we consider hypotension serious?
    when the mean BP is less than 60 mmHg
  36. Are we mainly concerned with hypertension or hypotension?
  37. What is considered hypotension?
    MAP <70 for dogs and <80 for cats
  38. What is considered hypertension?
    MAP >120 for dogs and cats
  39. What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too wide?
    gives us a falsely low reading
  40. What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too small or narrow?
    gives us a falsely high reading
  41. What can happen to our blood pressure reading if the cuff is too loose?
    can give use a falsely elevated reading
  42. What can happen if we place our cuff over a joint?
    it will be less likely to compress artery
Card Set
Blood Pressure