Sensation & Perception

  1. The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense.
  2. Simple stimulation of a sense organ.
  3. The organization, identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation.
  4. What takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system.
  5. Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus.
  6. The minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus.
    Absolute threshold
  7. The minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected.
    Just noticeable difference (JND)
  8. The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity.
    Weber's Law
  9. An observation that the response to a stimulus depends on both a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion.
    Signal detection theory
  10. Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.
    Sensory adaptation
  11. The ability to see fine detail.
    Visual acuity
  12. Light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball.
  13. The process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina.
  14. Photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail.
  15. Photoreceptors that become active under low-light conditions for night vision.
  16. An area of the retina where vision is clearest and there are no rods at all.
  17. A location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina because the corresponding area of the retina contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light.
    Blind spot
  18. The region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron.
    Receptive field
  19. The pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each color.  Explains color-blindness.
    Trichromatic color representation
  20. Pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition.  Explains after images.
    Color-opponent representation
  21. The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex.
    area V1
  22. The inability to recognize objects by sight
    Visual-form agnosia
  23. How features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free-floating or miscombined features.
    Binding problem
  24. A perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined.
    Illusory conjunction
  25. The idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together.
    Feature integration theory
  26. A perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains constant.
    Perceptual constancy
  27. A mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image.
  28. Aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye.
    Monocular depth cues
  29. The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provide information about depth.
    Binocular disparity
  30. The perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing is rapid succession in different locations.
    Apparent motion.
  31. When people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene.
    Change blindness
  32. A failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention.
    Inattentional blindness
  33. How high or low a sound is
  34. A sound's intensity.
  35. A listener's experience of sound quality resonance.
  36. A fluid-filled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction.
  37. A structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid.
    Basilar membrane
  38. Specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane.
    Hair cells
  39. A portion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex.
    Area A1
  40. The cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane.
    Place code
  41. The cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potential entering the auditory nerve.
    Temporal code
  42. The active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands.
    Haptic perception
  43. Feeling pain when sensory information from internal and external areas converges on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord.
    Referred pain
  44. A theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped, or gating by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions.
    Gate-control theory
  45. The three fluid-villed semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear.
    Vestibular system
  46. Receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell.
    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)
  47. A brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes.
    Olfactory bulb
  48. Biochemical odorants emitted by other members of its species that can affect an animal's behavior or physiology.
  49. The organ of taste transduction.
    Taste buds
Card Set
Sensation & Perception
Chapter 4