What is the gold standard for treating chronic pain?
Opioids alone or in combination with non-opioid analgesics
What occurs in the PAG (peri-acqueductal gray)?
Midbrain processing center; high concentration of opioid receptors, modulation of pain response in descending endogenous pain suppressant pathways.
What are the three endogenous opioid agonists?
What is psychotomimesis?
Psychotic-like behavior (hallucinations, dysphoria)
What are common effects of Mu receptors?
What are the common effects of Kappa receptors?
What are the common effects of Delta agonists?
Releases Growth Hormone
What is the main MOA for opioids?
Opioids inhibit adenylyl cyclase, increase K+ influx, reduce Ca2+ influx, and therefore decrease neurotransmitter release