Saladin-26.1 Nutrition

  1. Term which accounts for the long-term stability of bodyweight: tendency of body weight to remain stable
    Homeostatic set point
  2. Extent to which heredity affects human weight (homeostatic set point)
    30% to 50%
  3. Extent to which diet and exercise (enviromental factors) affect human body weight (the homeostatic set point)
    50% to 70%
  4. This is regulated by peptide hormones and regulatory pathways which control short- and long-term body weight
  5. Chemical signals from the GI tract which act on the brain to regulate food consumption
    Gut-brain peptides (GBT)
  6. Short-term (minutes to hours) appetite regulators (3)
    Ghrelin, Peptide YY (PYY), Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  7. short-term gut brain peptide secreted by parietal cells in gastric fundus (especially when empty)
  8. short-term gut brain peptide which produces sensation of hunger
  9. short-term gut brain peptide which stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete growth hormone-releasing hormone--thus priming body to utilize incoming nutrients
  10. GhrelinImage Upload 1HypothalamusImage Upload 2GHRHImage Upload 3
    primes body to utilize incoming nutrients
  11. short-term gut brain peptide whcih d/c w/in an hour after eating
  12. short-term gut brain peptide related to neuropeptid Y (NPY) family of hormones
    Peptide YY (PYY)
  13. short-term gut-brain peptide secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the ileum and colon as food enters stomach
    Peptide YY (PYY)
  14. short-term gut-brain peptide which is released in proportion to the calories consumed
    Peptide YY (PYY)
  15. short-term gut-brain peptide whose primary effect signals satiety and desire to stop eating
    Peptide YY (PYY)
  16. short-term gut-brain peptide which remaines elevated well after a meal, prolongs satiety, and acts as an ileal brake to prevent stomach from empying too quickly
    Peptide YY (PYY)
  17. short-term gut-brain peptide secreted by enteroendocrine cells in duodenum and jejunum
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  18. short-term gut-brain peptide which stimulates the secretion of bile and pancreatic enzymes
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  19. short-term gut-brain peptide which suppresses appetite by stimulating the brain and sensory fibers of the vagus nerves
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  20. short-term gut-brain peptide which stimulates hunger
  21. short-term gut-brain peptides (2) which suppress appetite
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) & Peptide YY (PYY)
  22. Long-term appetite regulators--govern rate of caloric intake and energy expenditure over weeks to years (2)
    Leptin, Insulin
  23. signal which informs brain of how much adipose tissue exists in the body and activates mechanisms for adding or reducing fat
    adiposity signal
  24. long-term gut-brain peptide secreted by adipocytes throughout body
  25. long-term gut-brain peptide released in proportion to the level of one's fat stores thus informing the brain of the body's amount of fat
  26. long-term gut-brain peptide whose deficiency or (much more commonly) receptor defect leads to hyperphagia (overeating) and extreme obesity
  27. Tissue of increasinglly important source of multiple hormones influencing the body's energy balance
    Adipose tissue
  28. long-term gut-brain peptide secreted by pancreatic beta cells
  29. long term gut-brain peptide which stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake
  30. long-term gut-brain peptide which promotes glycogen and fat synthesis
  31. long-term gut-brain peptide whose receptors in the brain function as an index of the body's fat stores
  32. long-term gut-brain peptide having the weaker effect on appetite
  33. Important brain center for appetite regulation whcih contains receptors for short-term (PYY, Ghrelin, CCK) ang long-term (Leptin, Insulin) gut-brain peptides
    arcuate nucleaus of the hypothalamus
  34. Secretions of the two neural networks of the arcuate nucleus
    • Neuropeptide Y (NPY)--appetite stimulant
    • Melanocortin--appetite suppresant
  35. arcuate nucleus sectretion which is stimulated by ghrelin
    NPY (neuropeptide Y)
  36. Arcuate nucleus secretion which stimulates appetite
    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
  37. Arcuate nucleus secretion which inhibits appetite
  38. Arcuate nucleus secretion inhibited by PYY, insulin, leptin
    NPY (neuropeptide Y)
  39. arcuate nucleus secretion which is stimulated by leptin
  40. long-term gut-brain peptide which stimulates melanocortin secretion and inhibits endocannabinoids
  41. appetite stimulants named for their resemblance tohe tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of marijuana
  42. gastric peristalsis which begins after the stomach is emptied and increases over time creating a growing desire to eat w/out affecting the amount of food desired, and continuing even when nervous connections are severed and conscious perception is removed
    hunger contractions
  43. brief appetite satiety can occur via these (3) mechanichal means
    chewing, swallowing, OR creating pressure on internal stomach wall (e.g. as with inflating an intragastric balloon)
  44. factor which provides lasting satiation
    nutrient absorption into the blood
  45. Neurotransmitter which governs the appetite for carbohydrate nutrients
  46. Neurotransmitter which governs the appetite for fatty class of nutrients
  47. Neurotransmitter which governs the appetite for protein class of nutrients
  48. The amount of heat that will raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1Image Upload 4 C
    One calorie
  49. One thousand calories
    • One Calorie (dietetics)
    • One kilocalorie (kcal) (biochemistry/phisiology)
  50. What do calories/Calories measure?
    The ability to do (bilogical) work
  51. "Empty Calories"
    calories provided by foods such as alcohol and sugar which suppress the appetite but fail to provide other requisite nutrients
  52. A chemical which is oxidized solely or primarily to extract the energy needed to make ATP and provided energy for physiological processes
  53. Any ingested chemical which is used for growth, repair, or maintenance of teh body
  54. Six major classes of nutrients
    • water
    • lipids
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • vitamins
  55. macronutrients (4-body requires relatively large quantities)
    • water
    • lipids
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
  56. micronutrients (2--body requires only small quantities)
    • minerals
    • vitamins
  57. a liberal but safe amount of daily intake of a nutrient that would meet the nutritional needs of most healthy people (as recommened by the National Research Council and National Academy of Sciences)
    Recommended dailly allowances (RDAs)
  58. Year in which RDAs were first developed
  59. Result of consuming less than the RDA of a nutrient
    increased probability of malnutrition in proportion to amount and length of deficit
  60. Term for nutrients which cannot by synthesized by the body
    essential nutrients
  61. Types of essential nutrients
    • minerals
    • vitamins (most)
    • 8 amino acids
    • 1 to 3 fatty acids
  62. Amount of carbohydrate in a well-nourished adult
    440 g
  63. Amount of carbohydrate in a well-nourished adult which is in the form of muscle glycogen
    325 g
  64. Amount of carbohydrate in a well-nourished adult which is in the form of liver glycogen
    90 to 100 g
  65. Amount of carbohydrate in a well-nourished adult which is in the form of blood glucose
    15 to 20 g
  66. compound which functions as the structural component of glycoproteins, glycolipids, ATP (& related nucleotides GTP, cAMP, etc.), and nucleic acids
  67. compound which can be converted to amino acids and to fats
  68. For which compounds do sugars function as structural components or as precursors
    • glycoproteins
    • glycolipids
    • ATP (and related nucleotides such as cAMP, GTP)
    • nucleic acids
    • amino acids (precursor)
    • fats (precursor)
  69. major function of most the body's carbohydrates
    fuel--an easily oxidized source of chemical energy
  70. 2 types of cells which rely almost exclusively on carbohydrates
    • neurons
    • erythrocytes
  71. major feul source (nutrient categories) from which most cells derive energy
    carbohydrates and fats
  72. hypoglycemia
    • deficiency of blood glucose
    • hypo=below normal
    • glyc=sugar
    • emia=blood condition
  73. effect of hypoglycemia on nervous system
    • weakness
    • dizziness
  74. 2 compounds which play the major role in the careful regulation of glucose
    • insulin
    • glucagon
  75. The body's reserve of this compound is used when blood glucose concentration drops too low
  76. potential result of depleted glycogen stores
    • oxidation of fat as feul
    • (greatly) reduced physical endurance
  77. routine activities which deplete glycogen
    • exercise
    • fasting
    • sleeping
  78. result of excess carbohydrate consumption above the body's needs
    carbohydrates (starchy and sugary foods) are coverted to fat
  79. result of dramatically reduced carbohydrate diets
    • certain intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism are not present thus fat cannot oxidize efficiently
    • ketone bodies are created
    • metabolic acidosis may result
  80. calorie content of 4 major food categories
    • carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g
    • protein = 4 kcal/g
    • fat = 9 kcal/g
    • alcohol = 7.1 kcal/g
  81. RDA fo carbohydrates
    125 to 175 g (due to rapid oxidization)
  82. daily glucose consumption by the brain
    120 g
  83. % of dietary calories which most americans get from carboyhdrates
    40% to 50%
  84. percent of dietary calories required by a highly active person
  85. average American sugar consumption 1 century ago
  86. average American sugar consumption today
    • 200-300g/day OR
    • 27kg table sugar/year & 21ky corn syrup/year
  87. sugar content of a 12 oz non-diet soda
    38 to 43 g (8 teaspoons)
  88. Three principal forms of dietary carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides
    • disaccharides
    • polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)
  89. the only nutritionally significant polysaccharide
  90. polysaccharides which are NOT nutritionally significant
    • glycogen--only trivial amounts are present in cooked meat
    • cellulose--not digested and never enters human tissue, but is valuable as dietary fiber
  91. 3 major dietary disaccharides
    • sucrose
    • maltose
    • lactose
  92. 3 monosaccharides (which arise mainly from digetion of starch and disaccharides
    • fructose
    • glucose
    • galactose
  93. fructose and galactose (monosaccharides) are converted by the small intestine and liver into this
  94. ultimate product of all carbohydrate digestion
  95. only monosaccharide found in the blood (in significant quantities)
  96. term for glucose found in blood
    blood sugar
  97. normal concentration of glucose in (peripheral venous) blood
    70 to 110 mg/dL
  98. a measure of the effect of a dietary carbohydrate on one's blood glucose (can vary from person to person, day to day, and by cooking methods)
    glycemic index (GI)
  99. formula for glycemic index (GI)
    during the next 2 hours the effect on CBG from ingesting 50g of glucose is 100 (e.g. a food with a GI of 50 produces Image Upload 5 the effect of glucose)
  100. effect of high GI ( Image Upload 6 70) foods (e.g. white bread, white rice, baked white potatoes, many processed breakfast cereals)
    quickly digested and rapidly absorbed causing a rapid rise in glucose and high insulin demand and raising the risk of obesity and DMII
  101. food with low GI ( Image Upload 7 55) (which are digested more slowly and raise the CBG more gradually)
    carbohydrates from most fruits and vegetables, legumes, milk, grainy bread and pasta
  102. benefit of complex carbohydrate, namely starch
    these foods typically supply other nutrients and do not promote tooth decay to the same extent as simple sugars
  103. proportion of carbohydrates of the typical American which come from starch vs. sucrose or corn syrup
Card Set
Saladin-26.1 Nutrition